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Frequency of Bushman canine
18% in African descedents
Bushman canine
Additional cusp appears on the lingual side of the crown of the maxillary canine, making tooth similar to lower first premolar
Frequency of cusp 7
39% in African decendents
Cusp 7
Located between the lingual cusps of the lower molar teeth; 7 cusps are present
Frequency of shovel shaped incisors
92% in Asian; 85% in Native Americans
Specialty within dentistry in which the method and theory of dental examination are applied to medicolegal issues
Forensic odontology
Develops when secondary dentin is deposited through time in the pulp cavity of permanent teeth
Pulp stones
Age indicators on teeth (4)
Pulp stones, staining, tartar, smaller root tip openings
Positive v. Possible ID
Positive is to the exclusion of all other individuals; possible falls within range but doesn't exclude everyone
Before death
Before death
At the time of death
After death
Blood settling
Livor mortis
Body temperature drop
Algor mortis
Gelling cytoplasm, rigid muscles
Rigor mortis
Study of the changes in biological elements since time of death
Forensic taphonomy
Study of insect life cycle and succession on cadavers for the purpose of determining PMI
Forensic entomology
Use of plant growth as a method of estimating PMI
Forensic botany
Degeneration of body tissues by the digestive fluids normally residing in the intestinal tract
Microorganisms normally residing within the body tissues begin to proliferate and breakdown biological components
Post mortem interval
Substance formed from buffeting of remains against hard surfaces in the water during transport and by causing body fats to hydrate
Succession of insect activity during decomposition
Deposit eggs, larva, adults, more eggs
Fertilizes plant growth
3 decomposition rate factors
Temperature, humidity, and accessibility
More sun = faster or slower decomposition
More humid = faster or slower decomposition
What happens to a body that is placed in rapid drying in arid climates
What five factors influence accessibility decomposition rate factors
Trauma and placement, access to internal organs, outdoors or indoors, surface or underwater or buried, and depth of burial
Cause v. Manner of death
Cause is what caused the death (heart attack); manner is homicide, suicide, etc.
How fast do blowflys arrive at a dead body
Minutes to hours
How soon do blowfly eggs hatch
23 hours
When do beetles begin to show up to a dead body
Within day or two
Discontinuity that travels completely through the bone
Discontinuity that does not travel completely through the bone
Occurs when surfaces that once were continuous no longer meet or meet at an unnatural angle
Where broken ends of long bones are separated from each other
Complete fracture
Part of the fractured area is still attached to its original bone and the surfaces meet at an unnatural angle
Hinge fracture
Break in bone where separation between the broken ends does not occur
Green stick fracture
Single discontinuity results in a bone broken into two segments
Simple fracture
Fracture that is common resulting from falls
Simple fracture
Break that results in the production of multiple fragments of bone
Comminuted fracture
Fracture common in subadults when trauma occurs to the long bone, especially the clavicle
Green stick fractures
Fracture common in death by violence
Comminuted fracture
Type of discontinuity that usually originate near the point of impact, where they help dissipate the contacting force across the bone surface
Fracture lines
Two types of fracture lines
Radiating and concentric fracture lines
Most common form of fracture lines
Radiating lines
Line that disperses outward from the area of applied force
Radiating lines
Line most common in high-velocity projectile wounds
Hoop (concentric) lines
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