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Four factors on the shape produced by a bullet
Construction, angle of trajectory, angle of axis, and the type of wound that it forms
Bullet wound most likely to occur when both the angle of trajectory and the angle of bullet axis are perpendicular to the bone's surface
Round wounds
Bullet wound most likely to occur when either the angle of trajectory is not perpendicular to the bone's surface or when the bullet is tumbling when it strikes
Oval wounds
Types of bullet wounds more likely to be entry wounds
Round or oval
Bullet wound caused mostly by bullets that graze the bone
Occur around the site of bullet impact on the diaphyses, appearing as lozenge-shaped lines extending along the long axis of the bone
Butterfly fractures
Infraction caused by compression along the long axis of a bone
Bow fracture
An incomplete, transverse fracture to long bones that results in the diaphyses being bent at an abdominal angle
Greenstick fracture
Result of compressive forces that cause an outward buckling of the cortex around the circumference of a bone
Torus or buckling fracture
Oblique or spiral fracture where the ends do not separate
Toddler's fracture
Segments of bone that point inwardly toward the bone's center
Depressed fracture
Fracture that crosses the diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the bone
Transverse fracture
Fracture that passes through the shaft of the bone at an angle approximating 45 degrees
Oblique fracture
Fracture that results when excessive torsion is applied to a bone
Spiral fracture
Break that results in the production of two or more pieces
Comminuted fracture
Three segments of bone
Segmental fracture
Fracture that occurs to the ends of long limb bones
Epiphyseal fracture
Separation of the alveolar part of the maxilla from the rest of the face in the area between the alveolar ridges and the nasofrontal process
Lefort 1
Separation of the mid-face from the rest of the cranium
Lefort 2
Entire face is separated from the braincase
Lefort 3
Fracture that occurs at the base of the skull
Ring fracture
Chips of bone
Four categories of skeletal anomalies
Accessory ossicles, nonfusion anomalies, accessory foramina, and miscellaneous
Abnormal loss of bone, erosion and/or destruction of cortical or trabecular bone
Lytic lesions
Excess bone being deposited at various locations throughout the skeleton
Proliferative lesions
Abnormal contours or shapes of the bone
Deformative lesions
Localized bone death
Cavities form on the top or bottom of the body of the vertebrae
Schmorl's node
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