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Line that is caused by the inward and outward bending of the surface of bone
Hoop (concentric) fractures
Breaks that occur in bones that are weakened by disease
Pathological fractures
Breaks caused by overuse
Stress fractures
Fractures common in athletes
Stress fractures
Fractures that occur in bones that are exposed to intermittent stress over a long period of time
Fatigue fracture
Five different categories for manner of death
Homicide, natural, suicide, unknown, and accident
Bone response to injuries
Hematoma forms, development of a callus, fibrous is replaced with lamellar bone
Force that pulls on bone, usually along its long axis, with sufficient energy to cause a break
Tension
Force that is common in dislocations
Tension
Force that pushes down on bones
Compression
Force that is common in skull injuries
Compression
Force most common in accidents
Torsion
Force in which one end of a bone usually is held stationary while the other end is twisted
Torsion
Most common force
Bending
Force that impacts the side of a structure at approximately right angles to its long axis, causing a break through its cross section
Bending
Break that commonly occurs from a bending force
Parry fracture
Fracture that is caused by self defense (holding their arms up during an attack)
Parry fracture
Force that is applied from the side where one segment of the bone is immobile
Shearing
Force is applied to a single point or a thin line
Narrow focus
Force is delivered over a large area of bone
Wide focus
Sudden stress force that is delivered powerfully at high speed
Dynamic force
Stress that is applied slowly
Static force
Injury resulting from a blow from wide instruments that have either a flat or round surface
Blunt trauma
Injury resulting from an implement with a point or edge
Sharp trauma
Injury that has characteristics of both blunt and sharp traumas
Projectile traumas
Trauma that exhibits both discontinuities and fracture lines
Blunt force trauma
Trauma that results from compression, bending, and shearing
Blunt force trauma
Trauma that resultsĀ from compression or shearing forces
Sharp force trauma
Trauma that is usually in the form of discontinuities and displacements
Sharp force trauma
Trauma that usually has complete discontinuities with both displacement and fracture lines
Projectile trauma
Trauma is which the direction of force is usually compressive
Projective trauma
Trauma that occurred before death such that there is partial or complete healing of the injury
Antemortem trauma
Injuries that occured around the time of death
Perimortem trauma
Injury that occurs after death
Postmortem damage
Diameter of a bullet and/or barrel of a gun
Caliber
Maximum weight of a lead ball that would fit dow the barrel of the weapon
Gauge
3 bullet profiles
Sharp, blunt, and hollow-point
Two basic types of bullets
Solid lead and fragmenting
Type of jackets on bullets
Full metal and semijacket
Reduces deformation and fragmentation of the projectile during passage through the body
Jacketing
Where a bullet enters the target
Penetrating (entry) wound
Where the bullet leaves the target
Exit wound
Funnel shaped wound
Beveling
Three types of beveling
Inward, outward, and reverse
Bone wounds at the site of a bullet's entry where the outer hole is smaller than the inner hole
Inward beveling
Bone wounds at the site of a bullet's exit where the inner hole is smaller than the outer hole
Outward beveling
Bullet wounds that are circular in outline
Round wounds
Bullet wounds that are elliptical in outline
Oval wounds
Entry and exit wounds are one, circular on one end and triangular on the other
Keyhole wounds
Bullet wounds that do not show any general pattern
Irregular wounds
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