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what is adaptive immunity?
host defenses that develop throughout life
what is a hapten?
a low molecular weight molecule that becomes an antigen when it binds to a carrier
what recptors do hapten bind to?
B cell receptors
What is another name for antigenic determinants?
what is an epitope?
found on the cell and it binds antibodies to the cell
what are the major groups of antigens?
macromolecules, microbial and nonmicrobial
what groups of antigens produce strong responses?
proteins and polysaccharides
what groupd of antigens dont induce strong responses?
lipids and nucleic acids
what are the two regions of antibodies
FAB and Fc.
Fab is top portion and Fc is bottom
How many light/heavy chains are on an antibody?
two light and two heavy
which region binds to antigens?
FAB region
which fragment can be crystallized?
Fc region
Which region is a variable region? Fab or Fc?
which region is constant?
antibodies are held together by what type of bonds?
disulfide bonds
What are the 5 immunoglubulin classes?
IgE, IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD
What is the function of IgG?
cross the placenta
IgA function/location?
found in secertion
Which Igbn is a pentamer?
IgM-controls blood stream infections
which immunoglobulin is involved in allergic reactions?
Which immunoglobulin is a monomer?
IgD-involved in development and maturation of antibody response
IgM and IgD are B cell receptors. True/False
What does pepsin do?
takes off Fc region
Paphin does what?
breaks apart all three parts of immunoglobulin
flagella have what antigen?
H antigen
Capsule have what antigen
K antigen
what is an example of an opsonin?
complements bind to what region on antibody?
Fc region
immature lymphocytes have not fully developed. T/F
Activated lymphocytes can...?
proliferate and bing antigens
effector lymphocytes can produce what?
what type of lymphocytes can quickly change back to activated form if they encounter an antigen again?
memory lymphocytes
T cells never produce antibodies. T/F
Which CD marker is associated with Cytotoxic helper cells?
Which CD marker is associated with cytotoxic T cells?
What MHC class does cytotoxic T cell recognize?
What MHC class does helper T cell recognize?
MHC class II
name some antigen presenting cells (3)
1. dendritic cells
2. B cells
3. macrophages
B cells are activated by which T cell? Tc or Th?
In Type I hypersensitivity, what IG binds to the mast cell to release histamine?
IgE, anaphylaxis
an antigen that causes an allergy is called
Type II hypersensitivity is what
blood transfusion
Type III hypersensitivity is what
forms immune complexes
Type IV hypersensitivity
delayed type hypersensitivity
name 3 autoimmune diseases
1. arthritis
2. graves disease
3. myasthenia gravis= paralysis
4. rheumetoid arthritis
5. type I diabetes mellitus
name Immunodificiency disorders
1. HIV
2. DiGeorge (no T cells form)
3. Chediak Higashi
5. congenitalagammaglobulinemia
transplant of tissue to SAME person
transplant of tissue to twin
transplant of tissue from one human to another
transplant of tissue from one specie to another
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