by apena


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pharmacology is
the study of drugs
pharmacotherapy
the treatment of disease with medicines
pharmacotherapeutics is
the field of medicine that studies drug use in the treatment of diseases
pharmacokinetics describes
the motionof drugs and is used to indicate the study of absorption distribution biotransformation(metabolism) excretion of drugs
pharmacodynamics
the study of the mechaniss of action of a drug and involves understanding the interactions betweenthe chemical components of living systems and the drugs that enter those systems
minerals
sulfur
iron
electrolytes
botanical
digitalis
opioids
animal
insulin
thyroid hormone
lanolin
synthetic
aspirin steroids procaine
biological
antibiotics ergot
FDA
The Food and Drug Administration
FDA enforces what act of 1906?
federal Pure Food andDrug Act
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic act of 1938
requires drugs to be tested to demonstrate its safety when used as its label directs
OTC
over the counter

available without prescription
prescription drugs
limited to use under the supervision of a vet or physician because of their potential danger, toxicity concerns, administration difficulty, or other considerations
vet/client/patient
relationship needed before prescription drug canbe prescribed
extra-label use
vet discretion allows vets to use drugs in a manner not indicated by the labeling
controlled substances
drugs considered dangerous because of their potential for human abuse and misuse
schedule
abuse potentiality classification fo controlled substances
SCHEDULE I
heroin
LSD
marijuana
SCHEDULE II
cocaine
morphine
amphetamines
pentobarbital
etorphine
fentanyl
codeine
SCHEDULE III
acetamenophine/codeine ketamine thiamylal thiopental hydrocodone
SCHEDULEIV
diazepam phenobarbital butorphanol
SCHEDULE V
buprenorphine diphenoxylate codeine cough syrups
four stages of drug development
synthesis/discovery safety/effectiveness submission and review postmarketing surveillance stage
preliminary studies
performed to determine if the drug produces the intended effects and whether it has toxic properties
preclinical studies
series of tests performed on laboratory animals to determine safety and effectiveness of the drug
carcinogenicity
ability or tendency to produce cancer
teratogenicity
capacity to cause birth defects
clinical trials
conducted on target species and are done to evaluate the drugs safety and effectiveness in that species
short term test
occurs within hours of test dose to test seizures paralysis depressed breathing depressed heart rate death
long term tests
3-24 months of repeated doses to check the animals various organ systems for toxicity damage
special tests
done to determine reproductive effects,carcinogenicity, tertogenicity
toxicity evaluation
determines the dose at which a drug induces organ or tissue damage that may result in permanent injury or death
short term toxicity
produces adverse reactions may prompt the manufacturer to terminate the drug testing
effective dose
amount of drug that produces a desired effect
lethal dose
drug amount that kills 50/100 tested
therapeutic index
aka margin of safety drug dosage or dose that produces the desired effect with minimal or no signs of toxicity
systems orientated screen
test of drugs effect on a particular physiological system
chronic studies
aka long term toxicity tests tests to find any toxicity occuring with long term use
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