keywords:
Bookmark and Share



Front Back
An average human heart beats approximately ___ times in a lifetime.
2.5 billion
Name the valves between the atria and ventricles on the right and left sides of the heart.
right - tricuspid (aka AV or atrioventricular valve), left - bicuspid (aka mitral valve)
___ is the electrical phenomenon that is recorded as an ECG.
the depolarization and repolarization of cardiac muscle
What creates the P wave of an ECG?
depolarization (which normally causes contraction) of the atria
What causes the QRS complex of an ECG?
depolarization (which normally causes contraction) of the ventricles
What does the PRI of an ECG represent?
the time between the onset of atrial depolarization and ventricular depolarization
What creates the T wave of an ECG?
repolarization of the ventricles (which is the resting phase of the cardiac cycle)
Atrial repolarization on an ECG is hidden by the ___.
ventricular electrical force
Sympathetic stimulation from the autonomic nervous system causes "___," while parasympathetic stimulation is refered to as "___."
fight or flight, rest and digest
(A(n)) ___ is a disturbance of the electrical conduction system of the heart in which beats arise from the wrong part of the heart.
cardiac ectopy (causes ectopic beats)
The smallest squares (1 mm) on ECG paper represent ___ sec in time. A large square (___ mm) therefore represents ___ sec.
0.04 sec, 5, 0.2 sec
The intrinsic rate of the SA node is ___ bpm, that of the AV junction is ___ bpm, and that of the ventricles is ___.
60-100, 40-60, 20-40
A P-wave is normally ___ in duration.
0.08 to 0.11 sec (2-2.75 small boxes)
A PRI is normally ___ in duration.
0.12-0.20 sec (3-5 small boxes)
A QRS complex is normally ___ in duration.
0.04-0.10 sec (1-2.5 small boxes; also referred to as "less than 0.12 sec")
A QT interval should normally be less than ___ in duration.
0.5 sec
What two portions of an ECG wave make up a PRI?
a P wave and a PR segment
With regards to an ECG wave, where does a QRS Interval begin and end?
begins at the end of the PR segment (also the end of the PRI), and ends after the sike of the S returns to the baseline (called the J Point; also, the beginning of the ST Segment and ST Interval)
With regards to an ECG wave, where does an ST Segment begin and end?
begins where the spike of the S returns to the baseline (aka J Point), and ends at the beginning of the T wave
Where does an ST Interval begin and end?
begins at the start of the ST Segment (J Point), and ends where the T-Wave returns to the baseline
With regards to an ECG wave, where does a QT interval begin and end?
begins at the end of the PRI and ends where the T-Wave returns to the baseline
If there is no Q-Wave present in an ECG, how can a QT Interval be measured?
begin with the onset of the R-Wave
What does "QTc" stand for?
corrected Q-T (QT Interval √∑ square root of RR Interval)
What does the vertical portion of an ECG graph repesent?
voltage
Where does an RR Interval begin and end?
at the peaks of consecutive R-Waves
What constitutes a \\\"sinus\\\" rhythm?
normal configuration of P-Wave, QRS Complex and T-Wave
Explain the 5-Step Method of Rhythm Identification.
1.) Regularity (regular or irregular), 2.) Rate (fast, slow or WNL), 3.) P-Waves (present or absent), 4.) PRI (normal, lengthening or variable), 5.) QRS width (WNL or widened)
What constitutes a "couplet"?
two PVCs together
What rates correspond to NSR, Sinus Bradycardia, and Sinus Tachycardia?
60-100 bpm, less than 60 bpm, 101-150 bpm
What constitutes "bigeminy"?
every other beat is a PVC
What constitutes a Sinus Arrhythmia?
an irregular rhythm with consistent P-Waves
What constitutes "trigeminy"?
every third beat is a PVC
What are the hallmarks of Sinus Pause, and Sinus Arrest, respectively?
1-2 beats missed; 3 beats or more missed
What constitute "runs" or "salvos"?
short bursts of V-Tach
Identify a Normal Sinus Rhythm with the 5-Step Method of Rhythm Identification.
1.) Regularity - regular, 2.) Rate - 60-100 bpm, 3.) P-Waves - normal configuration with one before each QRS, 4.) PRI - 0.12-0.20 sec, 5.) QRS - less than 0.12 sec (aka .04-.10 sec)
What essentially constitutes V-Flutter?
very rapid V-Tach
Identify Sinus Bradycardia with the 5-Step Method of Rhythm Identification.
1.) Regularity - regular, 2.) Rate - less than 60 bpm, 3.) P-Waves - normal configuration with one before each QRS, 4.) PRI - 0.12-0.20 sec, 5.) QRS - less than 0.12 sec (aka .04-.10 sec)
A single irritable focus in the ventricles that fires prematurely to initiate an ectopic focus produces a ___?
PVC
Identify Sinus Tachycardia with the 5-Step Method of Rhythm Identification.
1.) Regularity - regular, 2.) Rate - 101-160 bpm, 3.) P-Waves - normal configuration with one before each QRS (may be buried in the preceding T-Wave), 4.) PRI - 0.12-0.20 sec, 5.) QRS Complex - less than 0.12
From where does the P-Wave initiate in the case of a "wandering atrial pacemaker"?
sometimes in the SA Node and other times from other sites in the atria
Identify a Wandering Atrial Pacemaker with the 5-Step Method of Rhythm Identification.
1.) Regularity - irregular, 2.) Rate - 60-100 bpm, 3.) P-Waves - variable in morphology, 4.) PRI - may vary, 5.) QRS Complex - 0.12 or less
Identify a Sinus Pause/Sinoatrial Block with the 5-Step Method of Rhythm Identification.
1.) Regularity - basic rhythm is regular; some single beats are missed with the following one being on-time, 2.) Rate - 60-100 or bradycardia, 3.) P-Waves - those present are normal, 4.) PRI - those present are normal, 5.) QRS - 0.12 or less
Identify a Sinus Arrest with the 5-Step Method of Rhythm Identification.
1.) Regularity - basic rhythm is regular; three beats or more are missed (the interval of the arrest does not correlate with a multiple of the sinus interval; the following beat is junctional), 2.) Rate - 60-100 bpm, 3.) P-Waves - those present are normal, less than .12 sec, 4.) PRI - those present are 0.12-0.20 sec, 5.) QRS - less than 0.12 sec (aka .04-.10 sec)
What are the two clues to recognizing an ectopic beat?
1.) The P-Wave looks slightly different, 2.) The P-Wave comes at an unexpected time
A heart contraction which is conducted from the bottom of the heart to the top is known as a ___.
PVC
A ___ is generated by an irritable focus within the atria that fires prematurely and produces a single ectopic beat.
PAC (Premature Atrial Contraction)
What does a PAC look like on an ECG?
a little different than a normal P-Wave (the closer the irritable focus is to the SA-Node, the more the PAC will resemble a normal P-Wave, and the closer it is to the AV-Node, the shorter the PRI)
Identify a PAC with the 5-Step Method of Rhythm Identification.
1.) Regularity - the regularity of the underlying rhythm is interrupted by the single premature ectopic beat, 2.) Rate - normal or accelerated, depending on the underlying rhythm, 3.) P-Waves - abnormal (or perhaps hidden in the preceding T-Wave), 4.) PRI - those present can be shorter or longer than normal, depending on the origin of the ectopic beat 5.) QRS - 0.12 or less
___ can be thought of as a run of repeated PACs, and features a rate usually between ___.
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia, 160-250 bpm
What does the term "paroxysmal" in PAC refer to?
sudden intermittent episodes
x of y cards Next >|