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What are the 2 main groups of the Digestive System
Alimentary Canal and the Accessory digestive organs
What ia the Alimentary Canal aka (Gastrointestinal tract)
is the continuous muscular digestive tube that winds through the body digesting and absorbing foodstuff; its organs include: the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
What are the Accessory digestive organs
Aids digestion physically and produce secretions that break down foodstuff in the GI tract; the organs involved are the teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas. Food does not actually enter most accesory organs.
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Food does not actually enter most accessory organs.
What are the 6 Digestive proccesses
Ingestion, Propulsion, Mechanical modification, Chemical digestion, Asorption, and Defecation.
Ingestion
Simple act of putting food into the mouth
Propulsion
Moves food through the alimentary canal and includes both swallowing and peristalsis, This process is the result of muscle contractions.
Mechanical modification
(Not digestion) of food. It is the physical proccess of preparing the food to make it easier for chemical digestion and involves chewing, mixing, churning, and segmentation.
Chemical digestion
Series of chemical reactions (Catabolic reactions) in which complex food molecules are broken down to their smaller chemical building blocks by enzymes
Absorption
Is the passage of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract through mucosal cells into the blood or lymph
Defecation
Eliminates indigestible substances from the body via the anus as feces.
What is the relationship with the visceral peritoneum and parietal peritoneum.
Visceral peritoneum-covers the external surfaces of most of the digestive organs

Parietal peritoneum-lines the bdy wall of the abdominopelvic cavity
What is the fluid in the parietal cavity
Peritoneal fluid
What is Peritonitis
An imflamation of the Peritoneum
Four layers of the alimentary canal
Mucosa, Submucosa, Musclaris externa, Serosa
Mucosa
It is the innermost, moist, epithelial membrane that lines the entire digestive tract. It secretes mucus, Digestive enzymes and hormones; Absorbs digestive end products into blood; and it protects against infectious disease.
Submucosa
It is a moderately dense connective tissue layer containing blood and lumphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles and nerve fibers.
Muscularis externa
Consists of smooth muscle and is responislbe for peristalsis and segmentation
Serosa
It is the protective outer layer of the intraperitoneal organs, and is the visceral peritoneum.
What are the Mouth and its Associated organs
The lips and cheeks, The palate, The tongue, Salivary glands, and teeth.
The lips and cheeks
Helps keep food between the teeth when we chew and plays a small role in speech.
The Palate
It forms the roof of the mouth and has two parts: The hard palate anteriorly and the soft palate posteriorly.
The tongue
It is made of interlacing buncles of skeletal muscle and used to reposition food when chewing, mixes food with saliva, initiates swallowing, and helps form consonants for speech.
Salivary glands
Produces saliva, dissolves food chemicals, moistens food, and contains chemicals that begin breakdown of starches
The teeth
It tears and grinds food, breaking it into smaller pieces.
The Pharnyx
(oropharnyx and laryngopharnyx) Provides a common passageway for food, fluid and air.
Esophagus
Provides a passageway for food and fluids from the laryngopharnyx to the stomache where it joins at the cardiac orifice.
What is mastication
Chewing, begins the mechanical breakdown of food and mixes the food into saliva
What is Deglutition
Swallowing, it is a process that involves 2 phases.

The buccal phase is voluntary and occurs in the mouth where the bolus is forces into the oropharnyx.

The pharyngeal -esophageal phase is invoumtary and occurs when food is squeezed through the pharnyx and into the esophagus.
What is the stomach for?
It is a temporary storage tank where the chemical breakdown of proteins is initiated and food is converted to chyme.
Major regions of the stomache are
The cardiac region, fundus, body, and plyoric region.
Ruggae
Allows the stomach to expand
Sphincters
allow the stomache to store food.
3 secretions of the stomache that produce gastric juice
Hydrochorlic acid, Pepsinogen, and Pepsin
(HCL) Hydrochorlic acid
Provides the optimum PH for pepsin activity
Pepsinogen
Activated into pepsin at an acid PH
Pepsin
Protein digesting enzyme
Alkaline tide
normally encountered after eating a meal, when stomach acid is released into the stomach causing a temporary increase in pH of the blood.
3 parts of the small intestines
Duodenum, Jejunum, and ileum
What does the small intestine do
Site of the completion of digestion and absorption of nutrients
3 microscopic modifications for absorption in the small intestines
Plicae circulares, Villi, and microvilli.
What does the gallbladder do
It stores and concentrates bile that is not needed immediately for digestion.
What does the large intestines do
It asorbs water from indigestible food residues and eliminates the latter as feces.
Major sections of the large intestines
Cecum, Appendix, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
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