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What constitutes an adult patient to a lay CPR practitioner?
a patient eight years of age or older
What constitutes an adult patient to a HCP CPR practitioner?
a patient who has at least reached adolescence (breasts beginning to form on females, underarm hair on males)
What constitutes a child to a lay CPR practitioner?
a patient from one to eight years of age
What constitutes a child to a HCP CPR practitioner?
a patient from one year of age to pre-adolescence
What constitutes an infant to a lay CPR practitioner?
a patient under one year of age
What constitutes an infant to a HCP CPR practitioner?
a patient under one year of age
How long should a rescue breath take to perform?
one second
HCPs should provide rescue breathing for adults (when chest compressions are not indicated) at a rate of ___.
10-12 breaths/min (one every 5-6 sec)
HCPs should perform rescue breathing on children (when chest compressions are not indicated) at a rate of ___.
12-20 breaths/min (one every 3-5 sec)
When an advanced airway has been established, at what rate should HCPs provide rescue breaths (when chest compressions are not indicated) for adults, children, and infants?
8-10/min (one every 6-8 sec)
If an adult or child choking victim become unconscious, what technique should be used to relieve the FBAO?
chest thrusts (as a part of CPR)
For how long should a HCP check for a pulse in a CPR scenario?
no more than 10 sec
Where should pulses be assessed by a HCP during a CPR scenario on an adult, child and infant?
adult - carotid; child - carotid or femoral; infant - brachial or femoral
What are the CPR compression landmarks for adults, children and infants?
adults and children - center of chest, between nipples; infants - just below nipple line
During 2-rescuer HCP CPR on an infant, what technique should be used to perform compressions?
two thumb, encircling hands technique
What is the appropriate compression depth for CPR on adults, children and infants?
adults - at least 2"; children and infants - approximately 1/3 the depth of the chest
At what rate should CPR compressions be performed for adults, children and infants?
all - at least 100 compression per minute
What is the appropriate ratio of compressions to breaths for adults, children and infants during CPR?
adults - 30 to 2 for single rescuer and two rescuer; children and infants - 30 to 2 for single rescuer, 15 to 2 for two rescuer
If an arrest was not witnessed and the response to the incident is greater than four minutes, how much CPR should be performed prior to defibrillation?
five cycles/two minutes
When is it appropriate to defibrillate a patient before performing CPR?
in the instance of a sudden, witnessed collapse
What change should be made to the rhythm of CPR once an advanced airway has been established?
compressions should not be interrupted to perform breaths
What are the normal rates of breathing for adults, children and infants?
adult 12-20/min, child - 15-30/min, infant - 25-50/min
What three things should be assessed when looking for signs of adequate breathing?
rate, rhythm (regular/irregular), quality (breath sounds, chest rise/fall, effort)
What are the two main types of suction catheters? Which type is best for infants and children?
hard (aka rigid, "tonsil tip") & soft (aka French); hard (but French or bulb for nasal passages)
A soft catheter should only be inserted as far as ___. How should it be measured?
the base of the tongue; same method as an OPA, corner of mouth to tip of earlobe
A properly-functioning suction device should create a vacuum of at least ___.
300 mmHg
In general, do not suction a patient for more than ___ at any one time.
15 seconds (less for infants/children)
If a patient produces frothy secretions as fast as they can be suctioned, what is the recommended course of treatment?
suction for 15 seconds, ventilate for 2 min; repeat (consult medical direction)
At what pressure do BVM pressure relief valves activate? Give an example of a situation in which it may need to be disabled.
45 cm H2O; an incomplete airway obstruction in a child, requiring higher ventilation pressure
True or False - FROPVDs should only be used on adults.
True
On which patients, adults or children/infants, should an oropharyngeal airway be inserted upside down?
adults
How should an oral airway be sized?
corner of mouth to earlobe (or angle of jaw)
How should a nasal airway be sized?
tip of nose to earlobe
In 2011, ABCs changed to ___?
CABs
TRUE or FALSE: No cricoid pressure should be used during ventilations.
true
During CPR, SPO2 should be maintained between ___ and ___.
94-100%
Can AEDs be used on infants?
yes (if a manual defibrillator is unavailable)
Suctioning immediately after birth should be reserved for babies who ___.
have an obvious obstruction to spontaneous breathing or require positive pressure ventilation
Pediatric defibrillation should be performed at ___.
2 J/kg for the first shock, then at least 4 J/kg, not to exceed 10 J/kg or adult dose
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