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When ΔH= -   ΔS= +, this means...
The reaction is both enthalpically favored (exothermic) and entropically favored.  It is spontaneous (exergonic) at all temperatures.

When ΔH= -   ΔS= -, this means...
The reaction is enthalpically favored but entropically opposed.  It is spontaneous only at temperatures below T=ΔH/ΔS

When ΔH= +   ΔS= +, this means...
The reaction is enthalpically opposed (endothermic) bu entropically favored.  It is spontaneous only at temperatures above T=ΔH/ΔS

When ΔH= +   ΔS= -, this means...
The reaction is both enthalpically and entropically opposed.  It is spontaneous (endergonic) at all temperatures.
When ΔG is negative...
the process or chemical reaction proceeds spontaneously in the forward reaction.

When ΔG is positive...
the process proceeds spontaneously in reverse.

When ΔG is zero...
the process is already in equilibrium, with no net change taking place over time.
The second law of thermodynamics states that spontaneous processes are characterized by...
an increase in the entropy of the universe, that is, by the conversion of order to disorder.
Biochemical standard state
25°C (298 K), ph=7.0, pressure= 1 atm
How many bonds can a water molecule participate with other water molcules and how?
Four max, from the two hydrogen atoms that can be "donated" and two other from oxygen's the two unshared electron pairs that can act as "acceptors"
At the midpoint of a tritation, what components are related to each other?
1.pH=pK 2. [HA]=[A-] 3. Half of H+ ions/molecule are dissociated 4. The concentrations of the acid and the conjugate base are equal
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