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intermittent or continuous cardiac pain caused by anoxia of the myocardium
use of the unaided ear or a stethoscope to listen to sounds within the body
removal of tissue or fluid from the body for pathological examination to determine a diagnosis
used in the anesthetic setting to provide a breath-by-breath analysis of expired carbond dioxide (end tidal CO2)
type of portable fluoroscope, so named for its configuration
a preoperative and intraoperative diagnostic tool in which a catheter is inserted into the CBD and contrast medium is injected to outline potential calculi under fluoroscopy
contrast media
solution injected into arteries, veins, or ducts during a radiographic exam that is radiopaque and therefore stands out in contrast to surrounding tissues
the fluid that flows through the ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space, and spinal canal; serves to protect these structures
the insertion of an endoscope through the urethra and into the bladder for the purpose of viewing for treatment and diagnosis
a device used for recording the electrical activity of the heart to detect transmissions of the electrical cardiac impulse through the tissues of the myocardium
display and recording of the electrical activity of the brain by measurement of changes in electrical potentials
frozen section
a pathological method of diagnosis that involves freezing a tissue sample, slicing it into thin sections, staining it, and then viewing it under a microscope
written record
Gram stain
laboratory method of identifying bacteria; bacteria that stain purple are called gram-positive and bacteria that stain red are called gram-negative
producing a drawing or writing
a substance or item that remains in place either permanently or for a period of time
isotope scanning
involves the IV injection of a radioactive isotope into the patient prior to an imaging study; also known as nuclear medicine study or radionuclide imaging
hindrance or blockage of a passage
examining by touch
artificial device used to replace a body structure, aid bodily function, or give a cosmetic appearance; may be permanent or removable
radiography; x-rays
indication of a disease or condition perceived by the examiner
indication of a disease or condition perceived by the patient
urinalysis (UA)
laboratory examination of a urine specimen for diagnostic purposes
the use of high-frequency waves that are directed into the body and are reflected from the tissues to record an image for diagnostic purposes
study of causes of disease
what is considered the first step in determining the etiology of a patient's condition
getting all pertinent information on patient's condition (medical, social (including ethnic/religious info), and psychological information about patient, possibly family)
three types of visualization during a physical examination
1. indirect visualization---pharyngeal mirror

2. direct visualization---by naked eye

3. enhanced visualization---otoscope/ophthalmoscope
what are the arteries that can be used to insert a Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery catheter
femoral vein, subclavian vein, internal jugular vein
collapsed lung
what type of examination is necessary to identify an atelectasis
partly or wholly permeable to radiation especially x-rays
doesn't allow radiation to pass through
identify 6 purposes of radiographic exams in the OR
1. identify the location of abnormalities and foreign bodies

2. locate retained sponges, sharps, or instruments

3. discover fluid or air within body cavities

4. verify correct location for operative procedure (ex: between two vertebrae)

5. aid in bone realignment and prosthesis placement

6. verify placement of indwelling catheters, tubes, and drains
during a portable x-ray of the surgical site, what is the duty of the STSR
protect the sterile field
what is the advantage of fluoroscopy
the images may be viewed during movement and projected in real time, allowing the action of joints and organs to be viewed directly
list 4 intraoperative applications for fluoroscopy
angiography (heart or peripheral vessels)

cholangiography (CBD)

retrograde urography (inject bladder→ureter→kidney, whole urinary system)   

aid in bone realignment and prosthesis placement
list the steps for percutaneous placement of a femoral artery catheter using the Seldinger technique
what type of radiography can be used to visualize the structures of the biliary tract
why is contrast media used
to outline structures for visualization
describe the process of shooting an intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC)
contrast media is injected into biliary tract to outline calculi
what pathological conditions are detected with the use of cholangiography
calculi or other obstructions
a bone scan is an example of what type of scan
isotope scan
what does the term "hot spot" refer to in an isotope scan and what condition might be indicated by it
collection of isotopes in one spot

pathological condition
a 6 month old is scheduled to undergo a CT scan with general anesthesia--what is the most likely reason that general anesthesia will be administered
because the baby would be required to hold still
the patient is suspected to have a spinal cord tumor--will and MRI or a CT scan be more useful in visualizing the soft tissue tumor
why is ultrasonography ideal for examination of a fetus
doesn't use ionizing radiation
what is the one condition that a metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan is useful in diagnosing
pheochromocytoma (a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system or adrenal medulla)
name the two methods of administering radiation therapy--what is the purpose of administering radiation therapy
1. use of a beam

2. direct contact

to kill cells by interfering with metabolic activity   
diagnostic imaging: real-time manipulation of fractures
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