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The famous Bobo doll study demonstrated that:
children are less likely to imitate the actions of someone who has been punished for his or her actions than the actions of someone who has been rewarded
While Aaron was waiting for a prescription to be filled, he called Kate to see if she wanted him to pick up anything while he was at the grocery store. To his surprise, Kate rattled off ten different items she wanted him to buy. Aaron forgot two items in the middle of the list. Aaron's pattern of forgetting illustrates:
the serial position effect.
Implicit memory is:
memory that cannot consciously recollected.
Mike began studying for his exam the night before the test, reading his textbook chapter for the first time. Ebbinghaus would predict that:
Mike would rapidly forget most of the material that he read.
On the first trial, the rat had to press the bar three times to get a pellet of food. On the second trial, seven bar presses were needed. Although it continued to vary from trial to trial, on the average the rat was reinforced for every five bar presses. The rat is on a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
variable-ratio
Psychologists formally define learning as:
a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that is due to past experience.
After living in Canada for many years, Shu Fang returned for a visit to Seoul, Korea. As she walked through the neighborhood in which she had grown up, her mind was flooded with memories of childhood. The environmental cues that helped trigger Shu Fang's memories illustrate:
the context effect.
Classical conditioning involves _____, while operant conditioning involves ______.
reflexive behaviors; voluntary behaviors
Which of the following is an example of prospective memory?
remembering the haircut appointment you've got at 10:30 AM next Saturday morning
_____is the process of accessing information stored in long-term memory.
Retrieval
Jean was extremely happy that she had finally passed the CPA exam and had landed a great job with a big accounting firm. As she was celebrating with family and friends, memories in her life. Jean's recall of other happy memories is an example of:
mood congruence.
An operant can be defined as:
a voluntary action.
Visual sensory memory is to auditory sensory memory as ____ is to ____.
iconic memory; echoic memory.
Conditioned taste aversions demonstrate:
that certain stimuli are easier to associate than others.
Justin was involved in an automobile accident and sustained a serious injury to his head. When asked about the accident, Justin could not remember what happened or how the accident occurred. Justin seems to be suffering from:
retrograde amnesia.
Caleb had a wonderful time on his first date with Shauna. Because of this, he asked Shauna to go out on second date. What best explains Caleb's behavior of asking Shauna for another date?
the law of effect
Punishment is most effective if:
it consistently follows the operant.
In classical conditioning, if the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, what will occur?
extinction.
The phenomenon of spontaneous recovery provides support for the idea that:
a conditioned response that is extinguished is not unlearned or completely eliminated.
Christina is making some extra money as a phone solicitor for her university's fund-raising drive. She is paid $5 for every twenty calls she makes, regardless of whether the person donates. Christina is on a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-ratio.
Partial reinforcement is to ____ as continuous reinforcement is to _____.
sometimes; always
Forgetting a painful or embarrassing memory because we don't want to remember the information is called:
motivated forgetting.
The inability to recall information that was previously available to memory is called:
forgetting.
Roy is having trouble passing his calculus course. No matter how hard he studies, he cannot seem to pass a calculus test. Eventually, Roy gives up and stops studying or even coming to calculus class. Roy's behavior can be explained as an example of:
learned helplessness.
Six year-old Blair liked going to school right up until her first-grade teacher, Ms. Hanemayer, took maternity leave. The substitute teacher, old Mrs. Snarly, was strict and scolded Blair on several occasions, making her cry. On one Saturday morning as Blair was helping her father with grocery shopping, she rounded the corner and came face to face with old Mrs. Snarly. Blair instantly burst into tears. Blair's crying at just the sight of Mrs. Snarly is an example of:
a conditioned response.
Classical conditioning is to ____ as operant conditioning is to _____.
associating two stimuli; associating a response and a consequence
According to the working memory model developed by British psychologist Alan Baddeley, the "visuospatial sketchpad" is:
specialized for handling visual and spatial information.
Short-term memory is often referred to as ____memory.
working
The notion that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses is termed:
biological preparedness.
Fred's dog was classically conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell. Fred then repeatedly paired the bell with another stimulus, a whistle, his dog salivates, even though the whistle has never been paired with food. This example illustrates:
higher order conditioning (second-order conditioning).
Tara is giving Patrick directions to her house so he can come to the party being held there tonight. Patrick's ability to recall the directions in the proper order is an example of:
serial recall.
Behavior that is conditioned with ____ reinforcement is ______ resistant to extinction.
partial; more
If you cannot remember which United States president is pictured on a $5 bill, the reason is most likely:
encoding failure.
Animal trainers Keller and Marian Breland tried to train a raccoon to pick up two coins and deposit them in a metal box. However, instead of dropping the coins in the box, the raccoon would rub the coins together, much as raccoons do with their food in the wild. This tendency of the raccoon to revert to its natural behavior patterns is termed:
instinctive drift.
Every Friday, Dr. Cruz would give a quiz in his psychology class. Students quickly learned to be nervous on Friday mornings, just before each quiz on Fridays and the students' anxiety began to diminish with each passing week in which there was no quiz. The decrease in the students' anxiety may be attributed to the process of:
extinction.
Which of the following would be an example of a primary reinforcer?
a cold drink on a hot day
Brandon vividly remembers when he had to go to the emergency room for stitches on his left thigh. This is an example of which type of long-term memory?
episodic memory
Whenever Yvonne tried to recall her new cell phone number, she kept getting mixed up with an old phone number. Yvonne's failure to remember her new phone number is probably due to:
proactive interference
Because she didn't have a piece of paper handy, Mary mentally repeated the long-distance phone number over and over. Mary was trying to keep the information in:
short-term memory
According to the working memory model developed by British psychologist Alan Baddeley, the "phonological loop":
is specialized for handling verbal material, such as lists of words or numbers.
The notion of "imagination inflation" is the idea that:
vividly imagining an event greatly increases a person's confidence that the event actually occurred.
In response to cutting up an onion, airborne irritants released by the onion body will cause your eyes to tear. Using Pavlov's terminology, the tears would be termed a(n):
unconditioned response (UCR).
Although Morgan had practiced her speech several times, she had trouble remembering the middle part of the speech when she gave it in speech class. This pattern of forgetting illustrates:
the serial position effect
While trying to recall a list of items in correct order, the tendency to remember the first items in the list is called _____ while the tendency to remember the last items in the list is called _____.
the primacy effect; the recency effect
Implicit memory is to _____ as explicit memory is to _____.
procedural information; episodic and semantic information
Which of the following statements best describes the phenomenon of instinctive drift?
The biological predisposition to perform natural behaviors can interfere with learning operant behaviors.
As James watched Haley wave the 4th of July sparkler back and forth, he noticed that the sparkler seemed to produce a trailing afterimage that faded within a split second. Which type of sensory memory can account for the quickly fading afterimage of the sparkler?
iconic memory
Psychologist John Garcia found that rats did not learn to associate a taste with flashing lights and noise. However, rats do learn to associate a taste with getting ill. Which of the following concepts best accounts for this observation?
biological preparedness
Prospective memory:
refers to remembering to do something in the future.
According to Bandura, what four cognitive processes are necessary for imitation of behavior that has been only observed?
attention, memory, ability to perform the behavior, motivation
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