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Classical conditioning involves___, while operant conditioning involves_____.
reflexive behaviors; voluntary behaviors.
Animal trainers Keller and Marian Breland tried to train a raccoon to pick up two coins and deposit them in a metal box. However, instead of dropping the coins in the box, the raccoon would rub the coins together, much as raccoons do with their food in the wild. This tendency of the raccoon to revert to its natural behavior patterns is termed:
instinctive drift
If exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior, the response of passivity is termed:
learned helplessness
A rat in a Skinner box is reinforced for the first bar press it makes after one minute has elapsed. The rat is on a ____schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-interval
According to psychologist Edward C. Tolman, learning that is not immediately demonstrated in overt behavior is termed:
latent learning
When Micah was 2 years old, he was frightened by his Aunt Mabel's little dog, which had nipped him on the leg. Because of the incident, Micah developed a strong fear of small dogs but not of large dogs. This best illustrates which of the following?
stimulus discrimination
A ______reinforcer is one that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a _____reinforcer.
conditioned; primary
In operant conditioning, reinforcement is:
defined by the effect that it produces--increasing or strengthening behavior.
On the first trial, the rat had to press the bar three times to get a pellet of food. On second trial, seven bar presses were needed. Although it continued to vary from trial to trial, on the average the rat was reinforced for every five bar presses. The rat is on a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
variable-ratio
If you reinforce successively closer approximations of a behavior until the desired behavior is displayed, you are using the operant conditioning procedure called:
shaping
According to the working memory model developed by British psychologist Alan Baddeley, the ____is to verbal material as the____is to visual or spatial material.
phonological loop; visuospatial sketchpad
At a loud party, Kimberly met so many new people that when she ran into one of her new acquaintances on campus the next day she was unable to remember his name. The MOST likely explanation for her forgetting the name of her new acquaintance is:
interference
Justin was involved in an automobile accident and sustained a serious injury to his head. When asked about the accident, Justin could not remember what happened or how the accident occurred. Justin seems to be suffering from:
retrograde amnesia
Chloe could not remember the name of the husband of a very important client. So, Chloe began reciting the alphabet until a letter triggered her memory, and she could remember the name. The leter of the alphabet:
served as a retrieval cue.
While trying to recall a list of items in correct order, the tendency to remember the first items in the list is called_____while the tendency to remember the last items in the list is called _____.
the primacy effect; the recency effect.
Merely repeating information over and over is called _____while focusing on the meaning of the information is called______.
maintenance rehearsal; elaborative rehearsal
The term schema refers to:
an organized cluster of knowledge and information about an object, an event, a situation, or a concept.
Although Morgan had practiced her speech several times, she had trouble remembering the middle part of the speech when she gave it in speech class. This pattern of forgetting illustrates:
the serial position effect
Knowledge of how to perform different skills and actions is called ____memory while knowledge of facts, concepts, and ideas is called_____memory.
procedural; semantic
Brandon vividly remembers when he had to go to the emergency room for stitches on his left thigh. This is an example of which type of long-term memory?
episodic memory
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