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emperical
Relying on or derived from observation, experiment, or measurement.
psychology
The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment; the term is often represented by ѱ, the Greek letter psi (usually pronounced "sy").
critical thinking
The ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote.
phrenology
The now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be "read" from bumps on the skull.
structuralism
An early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements.
functionalism
An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness.
psychoanalysis
A theory of personality and method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.
biological perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
evolutionary psychology
A field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior.
learning perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories.
cognitive perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.
sociocultural perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior.
psychodynamic perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy.
humanist psychology
A psychological approach that emphasizes free will, personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential.
feminist psychology
A psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes.
basic psychology
The study of psychological issues in order to see knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application.
applied psychology
The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings.
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