Cloned from: sociology 101



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Sociology
Systematic study of human society and social ineraction, was brought to US by Harritet Martineau
sociologists look at:
social location ie..culture, social class,gender,race religion, age and education
external influences are:
individual experiences that lie at the center of what we do and think
industrial revolution
traditional society and culture were transformed-people migrated from  agriculture to industry. poor pay, poor conditions, child labor
american french revolution
new ideas; individuals has inalienable rights
the scientific method
1. select a topic
2. define the problem
3.review the literature
4.form a hypothesis
5.choose research method
6.collect data
7.analyzing the results
8.share results
auguste compte
1798-1857
french
social philosopher/funtionalist
positivism-applying the scientific approach to social world, founder of sociology; coined term sociology.
Herbert Spencer
1820-1903
english
social philosopher/functionalist
societies were evolutionary, "survival of the fittest"
known for social darwinism "Shouldn't help the less fortunate bc they will die, leaving a more civilized population"
Karl Marx
1818-1893
germany/england
founder-class conflict or conflict perspective, struggles between bourgeoisie (capitalists) & proletariat (working class) Classless society: people work to ability and receive according to need. Communism is application to ideas
C. Wright Mills
People dont act bc of inherited internal mechanisms (instincts), instead it is the external influences (result of exposure to human groups).
Emile Durkheim
1858-1917
france/germany
1st professor of sociology
functionalist
- studied social factors underlying suicide
-social integration & ties to social groups
-human behavior is better understoodw/in the larger social context it occurs
max weber
1864-1920
professor of sociology
-religion as the central force in social change
-The protestant ethic- greater economic development the rise of capitalism in some countries

Harriet Martineau
1802-1876
published society in america, 1st female sociologist
sociology in north america
starting @ KU in 1890
university of chicago 1892
atlanta university 1897
Jane addams
north america
1860-1935
social reform
founded Hull-house serving the needs of chicagos urban poor
W.E.B. DeBois
1st afican american w/doctorate
conducted race relations is the US
helped found the NAACP
basic sociology
theory/knowledge
study/analyze Analyze some aspect of society and publish findings
applied sociology
use sociology to solve problems
reform
blend sociological knowledge w/ practical reform
theory
general statement of how some parts of the world fit together and how they work
how 2 or more facts are releated
3 major theories
1.symbolic interactionism
2.Structural Fuctionalism
3.conflict theory
symbolic interactionism
(George H. Mead, Charles H. Cooley)
Everything is a symbol, which changes according to interpratation
(your interpretation, your interaction) microsoc
Structural Functionalism (Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer)
society composed of many parts, each with a function, creating equilibrium in a society. Society is composed of people that have functions, is one person is damaged, other parts are affected.

1 manifest function
2 latent function
3 latent dysfunction
1.actions intened to help the system
2.unintended consequences that help a society adjust
3.unintended bad consequences
conflict theory
macrosocial
groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources/control
macro vs micro
macro = large scale patters of society
micro= social interaction or what people do when they are in one anothers presence
research methods (6)
survey; participant observation; secondary analysis; documents; experiments; unobtrusive measures
survey
collecting data by having people answer a series of questions
step to an effective survey
determine target population/group
select sample group from population group
pick random sample or stratified (subgroup) random sample
participant observation
researcher must participate in the research setting and observe what is happening in the setting
secondary analysis
analyzing data that has been collected by other researchers
documents
books, newspapers, police reports, and records kept by various organizations
experiments
use of control groups/experimental groups & dependent/independnt variables
control group
group NOT exposed to independent variable
variable group
group exposed to the independent variable
independent variable
factor that causes change in the dependent variable
dependent variable
factor that is changed by independent variable
Society
A large group of people who share a culture and territory and is subject  to the same political authority and dominant culture
Sociological Imagination (C. Wright Mill)
the ability to see the relationship between individual experience and the larger society
Anomie (Emile Durkheim)
Social control becomes inneffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society
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