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Composition of Blood
Plasma (55%) + Formed Elements (45%)

Plasma = proteins + water
Formed Elements = RBCs, WBCs, Platelets
5 Functions of Blood
1. Transportation of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes
2. Regulation of pH and electrolyte composition
3. Restriction of fluid loss
4. Defense against toxins and pathogens
5. Stabilization of body temperature
Venipuncture
Vein piercing

Characteristics: superficial, thin walls

Purpose: low blood pressure
Peripheral capillaries
Characteristics: finger tip, ear lobe, great toe or heel

Purpose: blood smears
Arterial puncture
Purpose: check temperature, viscosity, pH
3 Types of Plasma Proteins and Their Functions

Random fact: 90% of these proteins are synthesized by the liver
Albumins - osmotic pressure

Globulins - antibodies and transport proteins

Fibrinogen - functions in blood clotting
Red Blood Cells: Structure
Thick outer area
Thin central region
LARGE surface area to volume ratio

Enables RBCs to bend and flex
Hemoglobin + Heme (Purpose)
Hemoglobin - pigment that BINDS to O2 and CO2

Heme - Holds an iron that it interacts with O2
Embolus
An air bubble, fat globule, or blood clot drifting in the circulation
Erythrocyte
A red blood cell; an anucleate blood cell containing large quantities of hemoglobin
Fibrin
Insoluble protein fibers that form the basic framework of a blood clot
Fibrinolysis
The breakdown of fibrin strands of a blood clot by a proteolytic enzyme
Hematocrit
Percentage of the volume of whole blood contributed by cells; also called packed cell volume (PCV) or voloume of packed red cells (VPRC)
Hemoglobin (Hb)
Protein composed of four globular subunits, each bound to a single molecule of heme; the protein found in red blood cells that gives them the ability to transport oxygen in the blood
Hemopoiesis
Blood cell formation and differentiation
Leukocyte
A white blood cell
Plasma
The fluid ground substance of whole blood; what remains after the cells have been removed from a sample of whole blood
Platelets
Small packets of cytoplasm that contain enzymes important in the clotting response; manufactured in the bone marrow by cells called megakaryocytes
Hemoglobinuria
When large numbers of RBCs break down in the circulation, making the urine turn reddish brown
Hemolyze
When the RBCs rupture within the bloodstream (related to hemoglobinuria)
3 steps in hemoglobin and red blood cell recycling
1. The four globular proteins disassembled into their component amino acids
2. Heme molecules stripped of its iron and convert to biliverdin -> converted to bilirubin
3. Excess transferrins removed by the liver and spleen
Transferrin
A plasma transport protein
Erythropoiesis
red blood cell formation that occurs in the red bone marrow
Myeloid tissue
red bone marrow
located in the vertebrae, sternum, ribs, scapulae, pelvis, and proximal limb bones
Yellow bone marrow
fatty tissue
Stages in RBC Maturation
1) Myeloid stem cells divide to produce RBCs and several classes of WBCs

2) Lymphoid stem cells divide to produce various classes of lymphocytes
White blood cell characteristics (4)
1. Capable of amoeboid movement
2. Can migrate out of the bloodstream
3. Attracted to specific chemical stimuli
4. Capable of phagocytosis
Megakaryocytes
Bone marrow cells responsible for the formation of platelets
Homeostasis: 3 steps
1. Vascular phase
2. Platelet phase
3. Coagulation phase
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