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What is the Scientific Method?
Observes
Questions
Forms tentative answers (hypotheses)
Makes predictions
Tests predictions - hypotheses can be proven wrong [falsified]


  • Experiments: should be controlled, replicated, modified, repeated

What is a hypothesis?


    • a working explanation for an observation


      • Needs to be tested (with if-then logic) to see if it “holds water”

      • This involves predictions from the hypothesis



What is a theory?

  • conceptual framework that explains existing observations and predicts new ones

  • generalizations, explaining observations, self correcting (if it doesn't work in one situation you can change it slightly to work)

  • developed through this process of scientific method

  • explain how things work

  • Theories: gravity, thermodynamics, motion, photosynthesis, fluid dynamics, rotation of earth … 

What is a law?
Concise statement of universally accepted fact, which explains an action or set of actions; often a mathematical equation.  
What were Aristotle's views of nature and humans?



  • There was an efficiency  and organization of organisms, in nature – a design 

  • The “fixity of species” within an ascending hierarchy




    • said animals now are how they've always been because they're perfect and how they're suppossed to be




  • Great Chain of Being” – humans near the top


What was Nicholas Copernicus' view on nature?

  • Deposed the earth (and humans) as being the center of the universe (replaced by the sun - Heliocentric view)

What was Archbishop James Usher's view on nature?

  • Calculated the date of creation based on the “begat” chapter of Genesis to 4004 B.C. (less than 6,000 yrs old)

  • counted the # of generations in the bible (genesis) to find how old the earth was

What was John Ray's view on nature?

  • Recognized that groups of plants and animals can be distinguished by their ability to reproduce with one another.

  • Coined the term species and genus to separate these groups

What was Carolus Linnaeus' view on humans?

  • precursor to evolution

  • Classified humans based on morphological and behavioral similarity, in Systema Naturae (1735) using a standardized method for naming genus and species 



    • Binomial Nomenclature 



  • He added class and orderto his system of taxonomy
    Homo sapiens:
    africanus
    americanus
    asiaticus
    europeanus
    monstrosus

What was Comte de Buffon's view on nature?
published Natural History in which he stressed the importance of environmental change and an organisms response to the environment


  • Adaptation to the environment


looked at how species work in their environments. Wondered why same animal in diff environments. Realized they lived in diff environments and so adapted to respective environment. 

  • One of the first to entertain the idea that species change

What was Erasmus Darwin's views on nature?

  • Charles Darwins grandfather

  • Entertained ideas of evolution and species change over time through poetry

What was Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's viewson nature?
Lamarckian change
published Philosophie Zoologique in1809, where he proposed:
The inheritance of acquired characteristics

  • He proposed that by using or not using its body parts, an individual tends to develop certain characteristics, which it passes on to its offspring.



  • Example:


A giraffe acquired its long neck because its ancestor stretched higher and higher into the trees to reach leaves, and that the animal’s increasingly lengthened neck was passed on to its offspring.

What was Lamarckian change?

  • He proposed that by using or not using its body parts, an individual tends to develop certain characteristics, which it passes on to its offspring.



  • Example:


A giraffe acquired its long neck because its ancestor stretched higher and higher into the trees to reach leaves, and that the animal’s increasingly lengthened neck was passed on to its offspring.
What was Georges Cuvier's view on nature?
Catastrophism – the world’s geographic landscapes are results of cataclysmic events (Noah’s Flood)


  • Explains the extinction of “primitive” species and replacement with “modern” species

  • said every so many years noah's flood happened and killed everything, then God replaced everything which is diff extinct species than current species.

What was Thomas Malthus' view on nature?

Exponential growth of human populations beyond carrying capacity -> competition for resources

  • said people increase to the point where environment can't support them which causes competition for resources because there arent enough for everyone which causes competition and eventually a huge die off. 

What was Charles Lyell's view on nature?
Principles of Geology (1830) – Uniformitarianism


  • Processes acting and shaping the world today were in operation in the past – the earth has great antiquity

What is artificial selection?
Humans purposefully selecting traits to breed in a species like in dog breeding. Darwin took this concept and applied it to nature.
Who was Alfred Russel Wallace and what did he do?

  • Created the wallace line- a line he drew between two islands and said all the members of one species south of the line were diff than the same species north of the line

  • Co-discovered the theory of natural selection and conversed with Darwin

  • “Father of Biogeography”

What is the Wallace Line?
a line Alfred Russel Wallace (the codiscoverer of evolution) drew between two islands and said all the members of one species south of the line were diff than the same species north of the line
When did Charles Darwin publish On the origin of species by means of natural selection? 
1859
Who was Thomas Henry Huxely?

  • "Darwin's bulldog"

  • Often Darwin was plagued with bouts of illness and did little public defense of his own writing

  • Huxley was an avid defender of evolutionary theory

  • Debate with Bishop Samuel Wilberforce



    • Wilberforce asked, if Huxley descended from an ape on his grandfather or grandmothers side

    • Huxley replied, he’d prefer to an ape ancestor to a man “who used great gifts to obscure the truth”



Who wrote The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex and what did it say?

  • It was Darwin's 2nd book 

  • He couldn't figure out why males in many species were bigger and more flashy than females while writing origins of species. 

  • Figured it out later and published this book on sexual selection.

What points did On the origin of species by means of natural selection challenge scientific thought of the time?

  • Species were not created in their present form, but evolved from ancestral species. 

  • Species are Mutable, not fixed

  • Proposed mechanism for evolution:




    • Natural Selection




  • Proposed the idea of a Branching tree of life rather than a ladder

What are the basic principles of how Darwin's natural selection worked?

    1. There is biological variation within all species 

    2. More offspring are produced than can survive – competition between individuals

    3. Depending on the environmental context, some variations are favorable and promote higher survival rate and reproductive success. 

    4. Traits are inherited and passed to the  next generation. (did not know how without Mendelian genetics)



    1. Successful variations accumulate in a population yielding distinct changes over long periods of time

    2. Natural selection acts on the individual, but it is the population that evolves.

What is intrasexual selection?
Female choice in sexual selection
Ex. Peacock feathers, antlers
 
What were the reactions to Darwin's book?

  • Not immediate acceptance, especially by Louis Aggassiz because his work was instant obsolete/wrecked by Darwin's work. (He said multiple floods happened and God replaced the species that were lost with new ones)

  • Agassiz worked against Darwin and believed that the failure to invoke a divine creator made natural selection flawed.

  • He based his views on Cuvier’s theory of Catastrophism

What was the John Scopes trial of 1925?

  • teacher Charged with violating law that banned teaching evolution (Tennessee 1 of 15 states)

  • Time of militant fundamentalism in U.S.


    • role of fossils



Verdict:

  • Guilty (requested by defense in order to appeal the case to Tennessee Supreme Court)

  • Fined $100

  • Bryan died 6 days later

  • 1 year later, decision reversed on a technicality

In the 24 hour clock of earth's history, what time/year were life, mammals, primates, Hominins, and modern Homo sapiens created?

  • Life on earth – 3.8 billion

  • Mammals – 200 million 

  • Primates – 85 million

  • Hominins – 7 million

  • The genus Homo – 2 million

  • Modern Homo sapiens – 

  • 200 thousand (11:59.9 pm)

What are somatic cells?
body cells
What are gametes?
sex cells (eggs and sperm)


What are DNA and where are they found?
The DNA Molecule: The Genetic Code
 

  • Nuclear DNA  - Found in Somatic cells and Gametes




    • Contained within the nucleus of a cell





    • Makes up chromosomes - strands of coiled DNA that carry the genetic information for the cell and the organism (Humans have 46 total 23 pairs).


What are chromosomes?
strands of coiled DNA that carry the genetic information for the cell and the organism (Humans have 46 total 23 pairs).
What are the two types of cells?
somatic cells (body cells) and gametes (sex cells)
What has the same number of chromosomes as an orangutan?
a potatoe (48)
The DNA molecule

  • DNA: The blueprint of life 




    • Chemical template for every aspect of organisms 





    • Double helix, ladderlike structure 







        • Ladder forms nucleotide 









        • Ladder base made up of 4 types 










          • Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine 











          • Complementary pairs (A&T, C&G) 





What does DNA make up?
chromosomes
What makes up the ladder rungs of DNA?
nucleotides (which are made of bases, phosphates, and sugars)
What do nucleotides make up?
the ladder rungs of DNA
How many types of nucleotide bases are there and what are they?
4 types:
Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine 
(A+T and C+G)
 
What does Adenine match up to?
Thymine
What does cytosine match up to?
guanine
What make up nucleotides?
bases (ATCG)
What are the functions of DNA?
Replication and protein synthesis
What are genes?
segments of DNA within the chromosomes that codes for protein
Genes reside on chromosomes (AA, Aa, aa)
What are alleles?
alternate forms of a gene, usually described as dominant or recessive – determine the expression of a trait.
a variety of a particular gene
What are chromosomes?
strands of coiled DNA that carry most of the genetic information for the cell and the organism (Humans have 46 total 23 pairs).
Genes reside on chromosomes (AA, Aa, aa)
One allele On each chromosome 

What are the two different types of cell reproduction?
Mitosis (somatic/body cells) and Meiosis (sex cells)
What happens during Mitosis and what is it?
the Production of Identical Somatic Cells 

  • DNA replication followed by one cell division 

  • Diploid cell (contains full set of chromosomes) 

What happens during Meiosis and what is it?
the Production of Gametes (Sex Cells) 

  • One DNA replication followed by two cell divisions 

  • Gametes are haploid (half the number of chromosomes). 

What are nondisjunctive errors?
The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during cell division.
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