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race
classification of human variation
The concept of race began a) with the ancient Greeks. b) during the Renaissance. c) in antebellum America. d) when the Romans discovered Egypt.
b) during the Renaissance.
cline
a gradual change in some phenotypic characteristic from one population to the next
life history
the details of an organism's existence from conception through senescence and death
stages of the human growth cycle
1.  prenatal
2.  postnatal
3.  adult
prenatal stage
includes 3 periods (trimesters) of pregnancy & ends w/ birth
postnatal stage
includes neonatal period (about 1st month),
infancy (2nd month to end of lactation, usually by the end of the 3rd year),
the juvenile period (ages 7-10 for girls, 7-12 for boys),
puberty (days or weeks),
& adolescence (5-10 years after puberty)
adult stage
3rd stage of life, involving the reproductive years and senescence
stressors
any factor that can cause stress in an organism, potentially affecting the body's proper functioning and it's homeostasis
intrauterine
refers to the area within the uterus
growth velocity
the speed with which an organism grows in size, often measured as the amount of growth per year
decidious dentition
also known as baby teeth or milk teet, this is the first set of teeth, which form in utero and erupt shortly after birth
weaning
the process of substituting other foods for the milk produced by the mother
motor skills
performance of complex movements and actions that require the control of nerves and muscles.
cognitive abilities
capacity of the brain to perceive, process, and judge information from the surrounding environment
menarche
onset of menstruation in an adolescent female
sexual dimorphism
difference in physical attributes (size/shape) between males and females of a species
epiphyses
end portions of long bones; once they fuse to the diaphyses, the bones stop growing longer
diaphyses
long midsection, or shaft, portion of long bones; each contains a medullary cavity
nonmineralized
refers to bone reduced to its organic component
secular trend
phenotypic change, such as an increase in height, due to multiple factors
aging
the process of maturation
senescence
refers to an organism's biological changes in later adulthood
homeostasis
maintenence of the internal environment of an organism within an acceptable range
menopause
the cessation of the menstrual cycle, signifying the end of a female's ability to bear children
osteoperosis
loss of bone mass often due to age, causing the bones to become porous, brittle, and easily fractured
functional adaptations
biological changes that occur during an individual's lifetime, increasing the individual's fitness in the given environment
T/F Human adaptation occurs at four levels: genetic, developmental, acclimatization, cultural.
TRUE
homeothermic
refers to an organism's ability to maintain a constant body temperature despite great variations in environmental temperature
vasodilation
increase in blood vessels' diameter due to the action of a nerve or a drug; can also occur in response to hot temperatures
Bergmann's Rule
principle that an animal's size is heat-related; smaller bodies are adapted to hot environments, and larger bodies are adapted to cold environments
Allen's Rule
principle that an animal's limb lengths are heat-related; limbs are longer in hot environments and shorter in cold environments
hypothermia
condition in which an organism's body temperature falls below the normal range, which may lead to loss of proper body functions, and eventually death
vasoconstriction
decrease in blood vessels' diameter due to the action of a drug or a nerve; can also occur in response to cold temperature
skin reflectenance
refers to the amount of light reflected from the skin that can be measured and used to assess skin color
melanocytes
melanin-producing cells located in the skin's epidermis
melanin
brown pigment that determines the darkness or lightness of a human's skin color due to its concentration in the skin
sun protection factor (SPF)
rating calculated by comparing the length of time needed for protected skin to burn to the length of time needed for unprotected skin to burn
hypoxia
condition in which an organism is not able to breathe in adequate amounts of oxygen, leading to low levels of oxygen in the blood, shortness of breath, and in extreme cases, death
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the rate at which an organism's body, while at rest, expends energy to maintain basic bodily functions; measured by the amount of heat given off per kilogram of body weight
total daily energy expenditure (TDEE)
number of calories used by an organism's body during a 24-hour period
macronutrients
essential chemical nutrients, including fat, carbs, and protein, that a body needs to live and to function normally
micronutrients
essential substances, such as minerals or vitamins, needed in very small amounts to maintain normal body functioning
hypercholesterolemia
presence of high levels of cholesterol in an organism's blood; may result from the dietary consumption of foods that promote high cholesterol or through the inheritance of a genetic disorder
type 2 diabetes
disease in which the body does not produce sufficient insulin or the cells don't use available insulin, causing a buildup of glucose in the cells
rigidity (bone)
refers to the strength of bone to resist bending and torsion
osteoblasts
cells responsible for bone formation
bone mass
density of bone per unit of measure
osteoclasts
cells responsible for bone resorption
Wolff's Law
principle that bone is placed in the direction of functional demand; that is, bone develops where needed and recedes when not needed.
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