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Fat calorie?
9 calories/gram
Calories in an oz of fat?
255
Fat Recommendation
30% (government)
Dietary Fiber
Consists of nondigestible carbs & lignin that are intrinsic & intact in plants. (Ex. Oat, wheat bran, & dried beans)
Functional Fiber Consists of isolated
Consists of isolated, nondigestible carbs& connective tissues that have beneficial physiological effects on humans. (Ex. Pectin)
Fiber
Non-digestible, non-nutrient, and necessary to one’s daily diet.
Total Fiber
The sum of dietary fiber & functional fiber.
G.I. (Gylcemic Index)
Gylcemic (blood glucose) response to a standard amount of CHO (50g)
Saturated Fat
Type of fat that tends to raise blood cholesterol & risk of heart disease. Solid at room temp, found in animal products. (filled to capacity w/ hydrogen)
Unsaturated Fat
Type of fat that tends to lower blood cholesterol & risk of heart disease. Liquid at room temp, found in nuts, seeds, fish, vegetable oils.
Trans Fat
Type of Unsaturated fat present in hydrated oils, margarine, shortening, pastries, etc. (Fats containing fatty acids)
Carbohydrates
Chemical substances in foods that consist of a simple sugar molecule or multiples of them in various forms.
Calories in 1gm of Carb?
4
Type of Simple Carb food?
Fruit
Simple Sugars
Carbohydrates that consist of a glucose, fructose, or galactose molecule. (High-fructose corn syrup & alcohol sugars are simple sugars)
What Simple Sugars do
Improves appearance, consistency, & cooking properties of many food products. (Most common food additive)
Monosaccharides
Simple sugars consisting of one sugar molecule. (Glucose, fructose, & galactose are monosaccharides)
Disaccharides
Simple sugars consisting of two molecules of monosaccarides linked together. (Sucrose, maltose, & lactose are disaccharides)
Highest in sweetness?
Fructose
Most common Sugar Alcohols
Most common: xylitol, mannitol, & sorbitol
Calories in tsp. of sugar
16
Cholesterol
Soft, waxy substance found among lipids in the bloodstream & in body cells.
HDL
High-Density Lipoprotein; “Good” Cholesterol. (Carries cholesterol away from arteries & back to liver; greater is better. Too Low HDL= 40mg/dL)
LDL
Low-Density Lipoprotein; “Bad” Cholesterol. (Major cholesterol carrier in the blood, forms plaque & clogging. High level= 160mg/dL+)
Suggested HDL
Greater than 35mg/100ml
Suggested LDL
Less than 100mg/100ml
Atherosclerosis
“Hardening of the arteries” due to plaque build-up.
Vegetarian
Latin root “vegetus”: whole, sound, fresh, lively.
Vegan
Uses NO animal products
Ovo-Vegetarian
Consumes eggs, but no flesh products
Lacto-Vegetarian
Consumes milk products, but no flesh products.
Pisces-Vegetarian
Eats seafood.
Reasons for Vegetarianism
Health, Mental, Economic, Ecological, Ethical, Spiritual, Religious, & Philosophical
Mutual Supplementation
Eating 2 different types of protein-rich foods results in this process. (Ex. Beans & rice, Hummus & bread, Milk & cereal)
Limiting protein in grains?
Lysine
Protein
Chemical substance in foods made up of chains of amino acids.
Complete Protein
Has all 9 essential AAs.
Functions of Proteins
Growth & maintenance, enzyme production, hormones & antibodies, fluid balance, acid-base balance, transport proteins, protein as energy
Essential amino acids
Cannot be synthesized by humans. (“Indespensible amino acids”) (Of the 20, 9 are essential)
Types of Essential AA
Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Methionin (milk), Tryptophan, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine.
Nonessential amino acids
Can be produced by humans. (“Despensible amino acids”)
% of protein U.S. consumes
70% of protein comes from animals.
Embolism
Blood vessel disorder that deals w/ the ballooning of the vessel walls.
Diabetes
Disease w/ abnormal utilization of carbs of the body & elevated glucose levels.
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