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Macronutrient

  • Carbohydrate (starch/sugars/fiber) - Energy nutrient = 4 Cal/g



  • Fat (lipids/oils/fatty acids) - Energy nutrient = 9 Cal/g

  • Protein (amino acids) - Energy nutrient and provides materials that form structures and working parts for tissues = 4 Cal/g   

  • Water - Most important//Helps regulate bodily functions and processes     

Micronutrient

  • Vitamin - Helps regulate bodily functions and processes  

  • Mineral - Helps regulate bodily functions and processes 

Identify the ways that nutrition affects health.
-Choice of diet influences long term health within the range set by genetic inheritance.
- Nutrition has little influence on some diseases but strongly affects others such as: diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, iron deficiency, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, toxicities, poor resistance to disease, dental disease, adult bone loss, some cancers
(Chronic Illnesses)   
-Choice of diet also influences growth, support, and repair in the body
List and define the 5 characteristics of a healthy diet.
Adequacy, balance, calorie control, moderation, variety
Adequacy
Food provides enough of each essential nutrient, fiber, and energy.
Balance
Do not overemphasize one nutrient or food type at the expense of another.
calorie control
The food provides the amount of energy you need to maintain appropriate weight--no more, no less.
moderation
The foods do not provide excess fat, salt, sugar, or other unwanted constituents.
variety
Food choices differ from day to day.  **Also, meals should occur with regular timing throughout the day**
. Identify characteristics of the scientific research process.

  • Observation/Question --> Identify problem to be solved

  • Hypothesis/Prediction --> Tentative solution to the problem or answer to the question that can be tested

  • Experiment --> Design a study and conduct research

  • Results/Interpretations --> Summarize analyse and interpret data


    • Hypothesis supported/not supported --> If supported develop a theory that integrates conclusion with those from other numerous studies//If not supported go straight to new observations and questions


  • Developed theory -OR- New observations and Questions

Identify the stages of behavior change
Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintence, adoption
Precontemplation
not considering a change, have no intention to change, see no problem with current behavior.
Contemplation
admit that change may be necessary; weighing pros and cons.
Preparation
getting ready to make a change in a specific behavior, taking some initial steps, making goals.
Action
committing time and energy to making a change, following guidelines set forth for a specific behavior.
Maintenance
strive to integrate the new behavior into everyday life, working to make changes permanent.
Adoption/moving on
beyond the fear of relapse, former behavior extinguished, and the healthy behavior has taken its place.
Major reasons for relapse
(1) Competence: person lacks needed knowledge or skill to make the change
(2) Confidence: believes the needed change is beyond scope of his/her capability, or lies outside of personal control. People need the following two things to gain confidence:
           (a) self-efficacy: believe in their own ability to make change
           (b) internal focus of control: belief that they have control over their own life’s events (vs. external locus of control, which is when people believe that their environment or other people have control over them.)
(3) Motivation: lacks sufficient reason to change
1 cup
8 fl oz
4 cup
1 quart
3 teaspoons
1 tablespoon
4 tablespoon
1/4 cup
1 oz
28 oz
16 oz
1 lb
1 kg
2.2 lbs
454 grams
1 lb
1 g
1000 milligrams (mg) = 1,000,000 micrograms (µg or mcg)
DRI (Dietary Reference Intakes
a set of four lists of values for measuring the nutrient intakes of healthy people in the United States and Canada (Umbrella term for: RDA, AI, UL & EAR)
AI (Adequate Intakes)
nutrient intake goals for individuals; the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people (observed or experimentally derived) in a particular life stage and gender group and assumed to be adequate.  Set whenever scientific data are insufficient to allow establishment of an RDA value
UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Levels):
the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals of a particular life stage and gender group.  Usual intake above this level may place an individual at risk of illness from nutrient toxicity

o   Indispensable to consumers who take supplements or consume foods and beverages to which vitamins or minerals have been added (a group that includes almost everyone)
o   Public health officials use UL values to set safe upper limits for nutrients added to our food and water supply
o   Some nutrients don’t have UL values. It doesn’t mean it is safe to eat, but that insufficient data exists to establish a value
EAR: (Estimated Average Requirements):
the average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group; used in nutritional research and policy making and is the basis upon which RDA values are set

o   Public health officials may also use them to assess nutrient intakes of populations and make recommendations
o   To set EAR, the DRI committee decides on criteria for each nutrient based on its roles in the body and in reducing disease risks
o   EAR values form the scientific basis upon which the RDA values are set
DV daily values
nutrient standards that are printed on food labels and on grocery store and restaurant signs.  Based on nutrient and energy recommendations for a general 2000 calorie diet, they allow consumers to compare foods with regard to nutrients and calorie contents
AMDR: (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges)
values for carbohydrate, fat, and protein expressed as percentages of total daily calorie intake; ranges of intakes set for the energy-yielding nutrients that are sufficient to provide adequate total energy and nutrients while reducing the risk of chronic diseases

o   45-65% of calories from carbs
o   20-35% of calories from fat
Identify the purposes of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and the benefits of following these recommendations.
DGA purpose:  maintain healthy weight, promote overall health, and reduce risk of major chronic diseases
Benefits:


    • Increase health, decrease health care costs

    • Increase energy levels and productivity

    • Increase your chances for a longer life

    • Compress morbidity (postpone sickness until later in life)

    • Decrease risk of obesity and chronic disease




Recommended amounts of foods from each group for the 2400 calorie level.
Fruit: 2 c
    Vegetable: 3 c
    Grains: 8 oz
    Proteins: 6 ½ oz
    Milk: 3 c
    Oils: 7 tsp
    362 calorie discretionary allowance
Who needs 2000, 2400 or 3000 calories.
2000 calories, sedentary women
  2400 Calories
o   Active Women: 19-30 years
o   Sedentary Men: 19-30 years
o    Active Men ages 51+
·      3000 Calories
o   Active Men: 19-30 years
Grain
  1 oz grains = 1 slice bread, 1 tortilla, ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal; 1 oz dry pasta or rice; 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal, 3 cup popped popcorn, 1/2 small bagel

**Half should be whole grains - Whole wheat, corn, rye, oatmeal, barley, quinoa, brown rice**
Vegetables
1 cup vegetables = 1 cup cut-up raw or cooked vegetables; 1 cup cooked legumes; 1 cup vegetable juice; 2 cup raw or leafy greens

**Eat several different colored veggies throughout the week, esp. dark green and orange**·    
Fruit
o   1 cup fruit = 1 cup fresh, frozen, or canned fruit, ½ cup dried fruit; 1 cup fruit juice, 1 large or 2 small whole fruits (1 “large or 2 “small = 1c of fruit)
**Never more than half from juice**
Dairy
o   1 cup milk = 1 cup fat-free milk or yogurt, 1 ½ oz fat-free natural cheese, 2 oz
fat-free processed cheese
o   2 cups of cottage cheese = 1 cup of milk
o   1 ½ cups of ice cream = 1 cup of milk
**Choose fat-free or low-fat when able**
Meat
o   1 oz Meat = 1 oz cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish; 1 egg; ¼ cup cooked legumes or tofu; 1 tablespoon peanut butter; ½ oz nuts or seeds
**Make lean or low-fat choices**
Oils
o   1 tsp oil = 1 tbs low fat mayonnaise, 2 tbs light salad dressing; 1 tsp vegetable oil; 1 tsp soft margarine.
Interpret information on food labels, including descriptive terms. You do NOT need to know the definitions of label terms on pp 52-53, except for high, good, healthy, and free.
-High: 20% or greater (daily value)
-Good: 10-19%
-Healthy: Low in fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, and sodium; and containing at least 10% of DV in vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber.
    -Free: none or trivial amount. (Trans. fat less than .5 grams or anything else Free would

be referring to.)
  Estimate nutrient density of foods from information on nutrition facts label. see S 2.1

  • Divide daily calorie value needs (For class we’ll be using 2000) into calories found in the serving on a food label.  

  • If the nutrient on label is equal to or higher than % the nutrient is nutrient dense.  If the nutrient on label is lower than % the nutrient is not nutrient dense.

Recognize the safety and the potential benefits of phytochemicals in foods and the limitations of phytochemicals in dietary supplements. You do NOT need to know the phytochemical and functional food terms or the specific food sources and potential actions.

  • Good in foods they are produced in: fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; act as antioxidants  and protect DNA, interact with genes, mimic hormones

  • Bad when isolated/ supplements; phytochemicals interact and are thus difficult to isolate--body not adapted to concentrated levels of phytochemicals. Supplements overwhelm the body’s defenses; unknown data

Mouth
The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food (Amylase is the enzyme responsible). Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, this is mechanical digestion, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use. Chemical digestion starts in the mouth, saliva(amylase) digests carbs (starch digestion starts here). The tongue secretes trace amounts of a fat-digesting enzyme that accomplishes some breakdown, especially of milk fats.
Esophagus
Located in your throat near your trachea (windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow. By means of a series of muscular contractions called peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to your stomach.
Stomach
The stomach is a hollow organ, or "container," that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown process. When the contents of the stomach are sufficiently processed, they are released into the small intestine. THE STOMACH STOPS DIGESTION OF STARCH AND STARTS PROTEIN DIGESTION. Only a small amount of fat is digested.
small intestine
Made up of three segments — the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum — the small intestine is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. Peristalsis also is at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it with digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver. The duodenum is largely responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the jejunum and ileum mainly responsible for absorption of nutrients into the blood stream. Contents of the small intestine start out semi-solid, and end in a liquid form after passing through the organ. Water, bile, enzymes, and mucous contribute to the change in consistency. Once the nutrients have been absorbed and the leftover-food residue liquid has passed through the small intestine, it then moves on to the large intestine, or colon.
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