keywords:
Bookmark and Share



Front Back
Types of Literature:
NARRATIVE
A narrative is a type of literature that tells a story.
Types of Narratives:
ADVENTURE FICTION
provides a great deal of action (often violent)
Types of Narratives:
FABLE
a story that uses animals or plants to provide a moral lesson.  The animals are often "anthropomorphized" meaning they have human characteristics.
Types of Narratives:
FANTASY FICTION
involves an invented world
Types of Narratives: FAIRY TALES
a type of folk tale that contain elements of magic or magical beings, such as a fairy or dragon
Types of Narratives: FOLK TALE
a traditional story that can date back many centuries.  Many folk tales were passed down orally.
Types of Narratives:
HISTORICAL FICTION
includes fictional stories based around historical events
Types of Narratives: LEGEND
a story that, while based on a supposed event in human history, is most likely a fictional tale
Types of Narratives: MYTH
like a fairy tale, but instead of including magical elements such as fairies, it usually includes a god or hero to explain a phenomenon.
Types of Narratives:
MYSTERY FICTION
involves stories where the characters attempt to find information.
Types of Narratives:
NOVEL
a lengthy narrative that only includes fictional context
Types of Narratives:
A PLAY
a type of literature that is intended to be interpreted on the stage by actors
Types of Narratives:
SCIENCE FICTION
a type of narrative that takes place in the future
Types of Narratives:
SHORT STORY
has the same structure as a novel but is much shorter
Elements of a Story: PLOT
refers to the series of events in a story - the order in which the actions take place.  A story's plots always revolves around some kind of conflict.
PATTERN of PLOT
1. Exposition - introduces readers to the people, places, and basic circumstances or situation of the story
2.  Complication - (rising action) - the series of events that complicate the story and build up to the climax.
3.  Climax - the high point of the story, the moment of greatest tension.  The turning point in the story.
4.  Falling Action - when the missing pieces of the puzzle are filled in.
5.  Resolution or denouement - the conclusion of the story, in which conflicts are resolved, questions are answered, and characters are set to move on with a new understanding or under new circumstances.
Elements of a Story:
CHARACTERS
the people created by the author to tell the story. Round characters are fully developed, complex, and three dimmensional.  Flat characters are one-dimmensional, undeveloped, and static.  Protagonist - the hero or main character, who faces the conflict and undergoes change. Antagonist - the person, force (such as disease or natural disaster), or idea that works against the protagonist
Elements of a Story:
SETTING
the time and place in which the story unfolds
Elements of a Story: TONE
the mood or attitude conveyed in the writing.  Situational irony occurs when there is incongruity between what is expected to happen and what actually happens
Elements of a Story:
POINT OF VIEW/PERSPECTIVE
refers to the person who is telling the story (narrator). First person is from the narrator's own point of view (I).  Second person uses "you".  Third person usese "he," "she," and "they" to tell the story.
Elements of a Story: ORGANIZATION
1. Chronological order 2. Order of importance 3. comparison and contrast 4. cause and effect 5. problem and solution
Elements of a Story: THEME
What seems to be the message the author wants to convey through all that has happened?
Common types of non-fiction literature
biographies, autobiographies, essays, news articles, research papers, editorials, reviews, and directions and manuals
Four Most Common Types of Essays
1.  Descriptive:  describing a person, place or thing
2.  Narrative:  telling a story or describing an event
3.  Expository:  exploring or explaining an idea or position
4. Persuasive:  arguing a specific point of view
SATIRE
form of comedy in which the writer exposes and ridicules someone or something in order to inspire change
VERBAL IRONY
the intended meaning is the opposite of the expressed meaning
HYPERBOLE
extreme exaggeration, as well as sarcasm and understatement
Types of Poems:
EMOTIVE POEM
aims to capture a mood or emotion and make readers experience that mood or emotion.  Short, emotional poems from a single speaker are referred to as lyrical poems
Types of Poems: IMAGISTIC
aims to capture a moment and help us experience that moment through our senses
Types of Poems: NARRATIVE ARGUMENTATIVE
Narrative poems tell stories, while argumentative poems explore an idea
Types of Poems:

ELEGY
ODE
Elegy is a poem that laments the loss of someone or something.  Ode celebrates a person, place, thing, or event.
Types of Rhyme:
EXACT RHYMES
HALF RHYMES
EYE RHYMES
Exact rhymes - share the same last syllables
Half-rhymes - share only the final consonant
Eye rhymes - look like a rhyme because the words are spelled the same, but the words don't sound the same
ALLITERATION
ONOMATOPOEIA
ASSONANCE
alliteration - the repetition of sounds
onomatopoeia - word that sounds like its meaning. buzz, hiss, screach, etc
assonance - repetition of vowel sounds within a sentence
Concrete or visual poetry
the arrangement of words create a visual effect
Types of Poem: SONNET
composed of 14 lines written in iambic pentameter (5 groups of syllables (feet) per line)
Types of Poems:
BALLAD
Usually tells a story and is often meant to be sung
Types of Poems: VILLANELLE
-five 3 line stanzas with aba rhyme and a final quartrain with abaa rhyme
Types of Poems:
BLANK OR METERED VERSE
guided only by meter, not rhyme
Types of Poems: LIMMERICK
funny five line poem with aabba
Types of Poems: HAIKUS
unrhymed poems of three lines and 17 syllables.  Line one has five syllables, line two has seven syllables, and line three has five.
Types of Poems:
FREE VERSE
Poetry free from the restrictions of meter and rhyme.
EMERGING READERS
students encountering print in an early developmental stage.  Refers to the continual process by which students learn to read.
ALPHABETIC PRINCIPLE
states that letters represent the sounds of a language
DIRECT INSTRUCTION
is a straightforward method of passing information from a teacher to a student
INDEPENDENT READING
requires students to read on their own.  It can help a student improve comprehension and learn vocabulary, as well as develop a passion for reading and learning.
SCAFFOLDING
a process by which teachers initially provide the reading assistance, and then gradually shift the responsibility of the learning to the students.
SHARED READING
involves students reading along while an expert reads fluently
SHARED WRITING
is a composition of a text created by the teacher and the students.  The teacher generally writes the story while the students piece together the students' ideas.
SIGHT WORDS
are words that students should be able to recognize as soon as the student sees them in print.
WORD WALL
a collection of words organized in a system and displayed visibly in a classroom.
x of y cards Next >|