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dietary plasticity
a diet\'s flexibility in adapting to a given environment
arboreal adaptation
suite of physical traits that enable an organism to live in trees
bilophodont
refers to lower molars, in Old World monkeys, that have 2 ridges
brachiators
organisms that move by brachiation (arm swinging)
canine-premolar honing complex
dental form in which the upper canines are sharpened against the lower 3rd premolars when the jaws are closed
dental formula
numerical description of a species' teeth, listing the number, in 1 quadrant of the jaw, of incisors, canines, premolars, & molars
diastema
a space between 2 teeth
diurnal
refers to those organisms that normally are awake/active during daylight hours
habituate
refers to the process of animals becoming accustomed to human observers
hominin
humans in a more recent evolutionary taxonomy, based on genetics
infanticide
killing of a juvenile
kin selection
altruistic behaviors that increase the donor's inclusive fitness, that is, the fitness of the donor's relatives
loph
an enamel ridge connecting cusps on a tooth's surface
monogamous
social group that includes an adult male, an adult female, and their offspring
olfactory bulb
portion of the anterior brain that detects odors
opposable
refers to primate's thumb, in that it can touch each of the 4 fingertips, enabling a grasping ability
parental investment
time/energy parents expend for their offsprings\' benefit
polyandrous
social group including 1 reproductively active female, several adult males, and their offspring
polygynous
social group including 1 adult male, several adult females, & their offspring
powergrip
fistlike grip in which the fingers & thumbs wrap around an object in opposite directions
preadaptation
an organism\'s use of an anatomical feature in a way unrelated to it\'s original function
precision grip
a precise grip in which the tips of the fingers & thumbs come together, enabling fine manipulation
prehensile tail
tail that acts like a hand for support in trees, common in New World monkeys
primatologists
researchers that study nonhuman primates
rhinarium
naked surface around the nostrils, typically wet in mammals
sectorial (premolar)
premolar adapted for cutting
sexual selection
frequency of traits that change due to those traits\' attractiveness to members of the opposite sex
tooth comb
anterior teeth that have been tilted forward, creating a scraper
Y-5
hominoid\'s pattern of lower molar cusps
In primate societies, ____________ is learned, transmitted knowledge. a) culture b) cooperation c) reproduction d) parenting
a) culture
The key factors that contribute to a female primate's success at feeding include a) food quality. b) distribution of food. c) food availability. d) All of the above
d) All of the above
Primates' enhanced ___________ led to a reduced sense of ___________. a) hearing; smell b) vision; touch c) hearing; vision d) vision; smell
d) vision; smell
T/F Only primates have opposable thumbs.
FALSE
Primates have an enhanced sense of a) hearing. b) touch. c) smell. d) Both a and b.
b) touch.
Visual differences between primates and other animals include a) overlapping vision fields. b) eyes on the side of the head. c) monochromatic vision. d) All of the above
a)overlapping vision fields.
The six main types of primate residence patterns include all of the following EXCEPT a) one-female, multimale b) all female c) one-male, multifemale d) all-male
b) all female
The sagittal crest of some primates helps anchor muscles for a) chewing. b) climbing. c) walking. d) talking.
 a) chewing.
Hominoids include a) orangutans. b) chimpanzees. c) gorillas. d) All of the above
d) All of the above
Lemurs are found naturally only in (the): a) Ivory Coast b) India c) Madagascar d) Tanzania
c) Madagascar
T/F Male primates use their canines for eating food and for scaring enemies.
TRUE
Anthropoids differ from prosimians in all the following ways EXCEPT a) anthropoids have larger brains than prosimians. b) anthropoids have more teeth than prosimians. c) anthropoids are more sexually dimorphic than prosimians. d) anthropoids see in color and prosimians do not.
b) anthropoids have more teeth than prosimians.
Which of the following is true about chimpanzee tool use? a) Chimpanzees interact with the environment using only their bodies. b) Chimpanzee material culture is not useful for understanding past humans. c) Chimpanzees use tools mostly for acquiring food. d) Chimpanzees do not make tools.
c) Chimpanzees use tools mostly for acquiring food.
The placement of the foramen magnum in humans indicates a) suspensory locomotion b) knuckle-walking c) bipedal locomotion d) All of the above
c) bipedal locomotion
What is the dental formula for Old World primates, including humans? a) 3 / 1 / 3 / 3 b) 2 / 1 / 3 / 3 c) 2 / 1 / 2 / 3 d) 3 / 1 / 4 / 3
c) 2 / 1 / 2 / 3
T/F A fossil with bilophodont molars is most likely an Old World monkey.
TRUE
In Linnaean taxonomy, humans are in the superfamily _______________. a) Hominoidea b) Cercopithecoidea c) Platyrrhini d) Prosimii
a) Hominoidea
Which of the following is NOT true of primates? a) Primates are adapted to live in trees. b) Primates inhabit every continent. c) Primates eat many different foods. d) Primates spend time with their offspring.
b) Primates inhabit every continent.
T/F Fingerprints help enhance primates' sense of touch.
TRUE
T/F Hominoids do not have tails.
TRUE
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