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Define zoonoses
diseases shared in nature between humans and other animals
Who first made the connection between rabid dogs and human rabies?
Aristotle
How are zoonoses transmitted to humans?
direct contact; air; water; fomites; ingestion
When was the first small pox vaccine developed and by whom?
1796; E. Jenner
What was the first small pox vaccine developed from?
cow pox
Who introduced the word zoonoses and suggested the concept of one medicine?
Ruloph Virchow MD
Who promoted and taught One Medicine?
William Osler MD
Who was a leading worker at the interface of human and vet med in the 1960s?
Dr. Calvin Schwabe-vet and public health scientist
How many zoonotic dzs are known?
>200
What percent of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic?
60%
What percent of emerging human pathogens have wildlife origins?
71%
How do these pathogens switch hosts?
by acquiring new genetic combinations
How many birds are traded annually on the global market?
4 million
How many reptiles are traded annually on the global market?
640
How many primates are traded annually on the global market?
40
What is the estimated dollar amount of illegal trade in exotic animals?
$4-6 billion
Define emerging zoonoses
pathogen that is newly recognized or evolved or that has occurred previously but shows an increase in incidence or expansion in a given range
Give five examples of emerging zoonoses
Nipah virus; SARS corona virus; BSE; monkey pox; avian influenza
How are zoonoses related to poverty?
Poor have closer contact with animals and are less likely to get correct dx and tx; the dz has larger impact because the effect on the animals affects their livlihood
What is meant by neglected zoonoses?
endemic zoonoses that have human symptoms that are shared with other common dzs and that are poorly reported especially in developing countries
What factors influencing new dz emergence are projected to have increasing importance in the future?
human demographics and behavior; economic development and land use; international travel and commerce; climate change and weather; poverty and social inequality
How are zoonoses classified?
by type of pathogen; usual reservoir/source; type of transmission; transmission relationship between humans and animals
What are the classifications based on the type of reservoir cycle?
direct; cyclo; meta; sapro
Define direct zoonoses
can be maintained or continued in nature by a single vertebrate species or reservoir
Give an example of direct zoonoses
rabies
Define cyclozoonoses
require more than one vertebrate species to maintain the dz in nature; often parasitic dzs caused by worms
Give an example of cyclozoonoses
beef tapeworm or taenia saginata
Define metazoonoses
requires both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts with invertebrates serving as the vector
Give an example of metazoonoses
lyme dz
Define saprozoonoses
depend on inanimate development sites such as soil or water as well as vertebrate hosts
Give an example of saprozoonoses
histoplasmosis
Define Antropozoonoses
maintaining host or reservoir species are non human vertebrates
Define Zooanthroponoses
maintaining host or reservoir species are humans
Define Amphixenoses
maintaining host species are either human or non-human vertebrates
Define Xenozonoses
dz transmitted to a human after the transplantation of an animal organ
How are zooanthroponoses controls directed?
Towards humans except in the metazoonoses
How are saprozoonoses controls directed?
based on the reservoir; very difficult in soil; ex: systemic mycoses
How are metazoonoses controls directed?
At the non-human host unless a very effective vax for humans is available; ex: yellow fever 17D vax
How are amphixenoses controls directed?
Towards both humans and non-human hosts; ex: MRSA
General zoonoses control rule:
more complex cycle= more possible routes of control
What types of zoonoses have the most successful control programs?
direct and cyclozoonoses
What are the basic premises of the reservoir mechanism?
The agent and environmental factors influence the entire mechanism; the mechanism is necessary for the continued transmission of pathogens.
Define reservoir
site where an etiologic agent propagates and is responsible for the pathogens survival; may be inanimate or non
Define source of exposure or infection
the object item or place where a pathogen was when it entered a new host
Define carriers
animal not showing any clinical signs when they are shedding or are a source of a pathogen
Why are carriers important?
They are the source of many newly emerging pathogens such as E.coli 0157:H7; salmonella enteritidis; campyolobacter jejuni/coli
Define primary preventative medicine
preventin exposure via sanitation; food safety; labels and education
Define secondary preventative medicine
early dz detection
Define tertiary preventative medicine
treatment and rehab to block progression of dz to disability
What organism is the most common bite-associated infection?
Pastuerella
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