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adnexa
appendages or accessory structures of an organ
bony pelvis
the four bones of the pelvis that make up the lower part of the trunk of the body; serves to support the upper body and protect the pelvic organs
breech
intrauterine position of a fetus in which the buttocks or feet present first
cesarean section
a surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised to deliver a baby
corpus luteum
a small mass of yellow-colored tissue that develops on the ovary and that grows within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation; responsible for secreting progesterone to maintain the high level of vascular supply to the uterine endometrium for the purpose of implantation and pregnancy
CPD
cephalopelvic disproportion
an obstetric complication in which the pelvis/birth canal is too small for a vaginal delivery or the baby's head is too large to pass through the birth canal
curettage
removal of tissue with a blunt or sharp curette by scraping the surface; performed to remove abnormal tissue, to obtain tissue for examination and diagnostic purposes, or to remove tissue from infected areas
DUB
dysfunctional uterine bleeding
abnormal uterine bleeding that is not due to a tumor, pregnancy, or infection, and occurs when menstruation is not taking place
dystocia
difficult labor due to various reasons, such as cephalopelvic disproportion, fetus size, or condition or position of fetus
episiotomy
the surgical incision of perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening and prevent tearing of the perineum and muscles during delivery
exenteration
refers to the total removal of; usually used in reference to the surgical procedure of total pelvic exenteration, which involves the removal of the vagina, uterus and cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries, bladder, and rectum for surgical treatment of cancer
fimbria
finger-like structures that form on an edge, such as the fimbria of the fallopian tubes
fistula
abnormal communication between two normally separate internal structures, or an abnormal communication between an internal structure and the body surface
gravida
refers to the pregnant female; the first pregnancy is referred to as gravida I; additional pregnancies are numbered sequentially
LEEP
loop electrosurgical excision
surgical procedure that uses the electrosurgical unit coupled to a loop electrode on the cautery pencil; used to excise a cone of tissue to remove an area of neoplasia
ligament
a band of fibrous tissue composed of collagen that connects bone to bone
marsupialization
incision of a closed cavity with the suturing of the open edges to the wall of the wound to form an open wound that will heal by second intention
myoma
a benign fibroid tumor of the uterus
occiput anterior
the most common relationship between the presenting fetal part and the maternal body pelvis
parity (para)
the classification used to indicate the number of live and stillborn births that a female has delivered at more than 20 weeks of gestation
perineum
the area between the posterior portion of the vagina or scrotum and the opening to the anus
Pfannenstiel
surgical transverse incision made in the lower abdomen; usually employed when performing a c-section
vestibule
an opening that serves as the entrance to a passageway, such as the vestibule of the vagina
what is the fornix
the annular recess created by the cervical-vaginal junction
describe the locations of the internal and external cervical os
the internal os is the aperture of the junction between the corpus uteri and the cervix
the external os is where the cervix opens into the vagina
list the 3 layers of the uterine wall
endometrium
myometrium
visceral peritoneum
where are the Bartholin's glands located and what is their function
located bilaterally at the posterior end of the vestibule
they secrete a lubricating mucoid substance
list the structures contained within the broad ligament
fallopian tube, round ligament, ovarian ligament, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics
what are the other two names for fallopian tubes
uterine tubes
oviducts
describe the location of the ovaries
either side of the uterus in the ovarian fossa of the lateral pelvis wall
name the two hormones from the anterior pituitary that stimulate the ovarian cycle
luteinizing hormone (LH)
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
name the two hormones that are produced by the ovary
estrogen
progesterone
what is the main muscle of the pelvic floor
levator ani muscle
what are the 3 components of the levator ani muscle
iliococcygeal
pubococcygeal
puborectalis
branches of which nerve and artery provide sensation and blood flow to the perineum and external genitalia
clitoral, perineal, and inferior hemorrhoidal branches of the pudendal artery and nerve
what structure is rounded prominent longitudinal flaps
labia majora
what structure is the area between the vaginal opening and anus
perineum
what structure is the external female genitalia
vulva
what structure is the cavity between the labia minora containing the urethral meatus
vestibule
what structure secretes lubrication
Bartholin's glands
what structure is a rounded prominence over symphysis pubis
mons pubis
what structure is the erectile structure of the female anatomy
clitoris
what structure is two flat cutaneous flaps containing sebaceous glands
labia minora
what structure is the rectal orifice
anus
what structure is a thin fold of membrane just inside the vaginal orifice
hymen
T/F: the uterus is pear-shaped with a fundus, body, and cervix
true
T/F: the ligaments connecting to the pelvic wall include the cardinal, ovarian, and broad
false
T/F: the posterior vaginal wall is longer than the anterior vaginal wall
true
T/F: the normal cervix lies anterior to the fundus of the uterus
false
T/F: the junction between the cervix and vagina is called the cul de sac of Douglas
false
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