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urgency
desire or sensation of needing to void immediately
hesitancy
inability to start a stream of urine
dysuria
difficulty or painful urination
stress incontinence
urinary leakage following a sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure such as coughing or sneezing
polyuria
voiding an excess amount of urine, over 2500ml per day
oliguria
insufficient urinary secretion or infrequent urination, under 500ml per day
anuria
complete supression of urine secretions in the kidney, under 100ml per day
hematuria
blood in the urine
renal colic
severe, penetrating lower back pain, caused by a stone becoming lodged in the ureter
flank pain
refers to pain in one side of the body between the upper abdomen and the back
uremia
build up of waste in the blood
residual urine
amount remaining or left in the bladder after voiding
nephrostomy
catheter placed into the kidney
ureterosigmoidostomy
connection of ureters to the sigmoid colon and urine and feces drain through the colon
lithiasis
condition of having stones
ureterolithiasis
stones in the ureters
nephrolithiasis
stones in the kidneys
ileal condiut
creation of an artificial bladder using part of the ilium and drained through a stoma on the abdomen
nephrectomy
kidney removal
cystectomy
the removal of all or a portion of the urinary bladder
cystotomy
surgical incision of the urinary bladder
ureterostomy
surgical creation of an opening on the surface of the body for the ureters
urinary retention
holding urine
edema
abnormal fluid accumulation in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body
normal value of creatinine
0.6-1.3
how is creatinine produced?
from the metabolism of proteins
how is creatinine excreted?
in the urine
normal BUN value
6-20
how is urea produced in the body?
end product of protein metabolism
how is urea excreted?
in the urine
normal specific gravity of urine
1.010 to 1.025
list abnormal constituents of urine
glucose, ketones, albumin, blood, and bilirubin
what is a KUB
kidneys, ureters, and bladder x-ray
define IVP
intravenous pyelogram, radiopaque dye is injected and the kidneys, ureters, and bladder is x-rayed
cystoscopy
viewing of the inside of the bladder with a scope
list 4 causes of kidney stones
infection, dehydration, and urinary stasis
list 3 symptoms of kidney stones
renal colic, hematuria, pain with urination
list 6 points of nursing care with kidney stones
straining for calculi, increase fluids, .........
prevention of kidney stones
forced fluids - 3-4 liters per day, cranberry juice, encourage ambulation, preventative measures for infection
treatment of kidney stones
fluids, surgical removal if pt remains in colicky pain: lithotripsy, extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy
definition of BPH
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy - narrowing of the urethra which results as the prostate continues to grow throughout a mans life
symptoms of BPH or prostate cancer
stream has decreased force, narrower stream, residual urine, urinating 3-4 times each night, urgency, hesitency, hematuria
surgical types for BPH or prostate cancer
suprapubic prosthectomy, retropubic prosthectomy, perineal prosthectomy, TURP (transurethral resection of prostate)
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to bleeding (hematuria)
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to irrigations
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to bladder spasms
decreasing irrigation
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to types of catheters
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to rectal precautions
list 5 causes of chronic renal failure
polycystic disease, glomerulonephritis, obstructions, renal tumors, diabetes, severe HTN, anything that is a chronic disease
early symptoms of chronic renal failure
polyuria, headache, nocturia, weakness, fatigue
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