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define hyperglycemia
abnormally high blood sugar
define glycosuria
glucose in the urine
define renal threshold of glucose
the amount of glucose that the blood can hold before excess is spilled over into the urine
define polyuria
excessive urination
define polydipsia
excessive thirst
define polyphagia
excessive hunger
define Kussmaul's breaths
severe paraxysmal dyspnea
define diabetic ketoacidosis
excessive glucose in the blood results in ketones from protein breakdown and accumulation
define diabetic retinopathy
eye disease that causes decrease in vision caused by diabetes
define diabetic nephropathy
progressive kidney disease caused by diabetes
define diabetic neuropathy
nerve damage caused by diabetes
define IDDM
Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
define NIDDM
Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
where does glucose in the blood come from?
foods eaten
normal blood glucose levels
how does the body normally keep glucose levels in control?
by the production of insulin
define 2 hour P.P
define glycosylated hemoglobin assay
A laboratory test to determine the amount of glucose in the blood that is permanently bound to a molecule of hemoglobin; helps prevent development of long-term complications by monitoring glycemic control over a longer period
symptoms of diabetes
polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia
triangle of diabetes management
food, insulin, exercise
what does exercise do to the insulin requirement?
decreases the amount needed to control glucose levels
why is a bedtime snack needed?
to maintain glucose levels through the night
insulin types
regular, NPH, Lantus
symptoms of hypoglycemia
TIRED - tachycardia, irritability, restlessness, excessive hunger, diaphoresis and depression
causes of hypoglucemia
too much insulin in blood in relationship to amount of available glucose caused by undereating, skipping meals, too much medication or insulin, too much exercise
treatment of hypoglycemia
check glucose levels, and give quick acting glucose such as honey, candy, syrup, OJ
symptoms of hyperglycemia
fushed face, dry skin, dry mouth, headache, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, drowsiness and lethargy, blurred vision, fruity-smelling breath, rapid heartbeat, deep and labored breathing
causes of hyperglycemia
irregular self-administration of insulin, by insulin resistance or defective insulin response in the body, by stress or infection
treatment of hyperglycemia
complications of diabetes
diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome, hypoglycemia, vascular disturbances, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, infection
proper foot care for diabetics
daily inspection and immediate medical treatment for any injury
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