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list risk factors for cardiovascular disease
unavoidable - age, sex, heredity; avoidable - weight, smoking, diet
differentiate between causes of angina and myocardial infarction
angina is caused by a decrease in blood to the heart and myocardial infarction is when no blood is getting to a part of the heart
differentiate between symptoms of angina and myocardial infarction
symptoms are the same except that angina will go away with rest or nitroglycerine
differentiate between treatments of angina and myocardial infarction including medications
treatment for angina is nitro, immediate treatment for MI is bedrest, O2, TPA, morphine. long term treatments are the same
what complications need to be watched for following an MI?
arrhythmias, CHF, another MI
what procedure would you follow if you suspected a blood transfusion reaction?
stop blood from infusing but keep IV fluids running, notify physician immediately
describe left sided failure symptoms
fatigue, dyspnea, orthopnea, parasizmol nocturnal dyspnea (sudden inability to breath at night), tachycardia, frothy pink tinged sputum
describe right sided failure symptoms
dependent edema, ascites, nausea, anorexia, restlessness, liver enlargement, neck vein distension even while resting in semi-fowlers postition
list causes of CHF
MI, aging, increased weight, hyperthyroidism, HTN
describe treatment for CHF
reduce workload and increase efficiency
what 2 medications are used in the treatment of CHF?
diuretics and cardiac stimulants such as digixin
list general patient teaching to give to a person with peripheral vascular disease
define normal sinus rhythm
the normal rhythm of the heart produced by impulses from the sinoatrial node
define myocarditis
inflammation of the hearts muscular walls
define pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium
define endocarditis
inflammation of the endocardium
define thrombophlebitis
formation of a clot in a vein with inflammation
define electrocardiogram
recording of electrical activity of heartbeats for baseline or pathology readings
define Holter monitor
a portable device that makes a continuous record of electrical activity of the heart and that can be worn by an ambulatory patient during the course of daily activities in order to detect fleeting episodes of abnormal heart rhythms
define cardiac enzymes
enzymes released by the heart after injury
define athersclerosis
arteriosclerosis characterized by deposits of cholesterol, fatty acids, or plaques on th inner wall of the artery
define arrhythmia
cardiac standstill; irregular pattern of heartbeat
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