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what does ABG's show in the blood?
pH levels, and if abnormal pH is caused by respiratory or metabolic disorders
where is an ABG sample taken from?
the radial, brachial or femoral arteries
what is a normal SaO2 level?
over 95%
define bronchoscopy
a scope that passes past the pharynx and trachea to the bronchus to visualize or biopsy
what does a chest X-ray show?
chest structures
what information is obtained from a pulmonary function study?
volume, capacity, and flow rate
what is the purpose of coughing and deep breathing
to maintain capacity of lungs and prevent pneumonia or atelectasis
what is the proper way to do coughing and deep breathing?
what is the proper positioning for respiratory distress
what is the purpose of an incentive spirometer?
measurement of deep breating to compare to pre-surgery
what is the purpose of postural drainage
positioned with good lung down to encourage fluid to drain from affected lung
what is the purpose of a thoracentesis?
to aspirate fluid
where is the needle inserted when a thoracentesis performed?
into the pleural space
what are the indications for a chest tube?
where are tubes positioned for chest drainage
define tracheotomy
surgical insertion of a tracheostomy tube
list parts of tracheotomy
obturator, inner canula & outer canula
describe nursing responsibilities for tracheotomy
define epistaxis
a nosebleed
list causes of epistaxis
dry mucus membranes, trauma, forceful nose blowing, nose picking, HTN, anticoagulants
describe treatment for epistaxis
sit leaning slightly forward, pinch nares for 5 to 10 minutes, apply ice to nose and eyes
define nasal polyps
grapelike clusters of mucosa inside the nose
define deviated septum
septum is not in normal midline position - caused usually by trauma
define rhinoplasty
surgical reconstruction of the nose
define sinusitis
inflamation of the mucosa and 1 or more of the sinuses
list signs and symptoms of sinusitis
pain over area of sinus, purulent nasal discharge, cough, sore throat, foul breath
describe treatments for sinusitis
antibiotics, analgesics, nasal spray
describe nursing care of SMR surgery
(submucous resection) monitor for excessive swallowing to indicate bleeding
define rhinitis
common cold
define pharyngitis
strep throat
define laryngitis
inflamation of the mucous membrane of the larynx
list signs and symptoms of influenza
headache, fever, chills, myalgia, strep throat, cough, anorexia, malaise
list complications of influenza
development of pneumonia
list signs and symptoms of cancer of the larynx
hoarseness lasting more than 2 weeks, dysphagia, dyspnea, cough, pain
differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic cancer of the larynx
intrinsic is on vocal cords and extrinsic extends beyond vocal cords
define bronchitis
inflamation of the bronchi and bronchial tree
list signs and symptoms of bronchitis
harsh cough that produces thich sputum, fever, malaise, wheezes, crackles, chest pain, dyspnea, hoarse voice
describe treatments for bronchitis
antibiotics for bacterial, expectorant for sputum, anti-tussives for dry cough, bronchiodilators to open airways and relieve dyspnea
define bronchietasis
dilation of an airway
define pneumonia
acute inflamation of all lung structures
list the 6 types of pneumonia
bacterial, viral. fungal, aspiration, hypostatic, chemical
list signs and symptoms of pneumonia
fever, chills, chest pain, dyspnea, productive cough with yellowish-green discharge, crackles, wheezes, abdominal distension
describe treatment for pneumonia
broad spectrum antibiotics, expectorant, antitussives, bronchiodilators, analgesics, O2
describe general nursing care for pneumonia
encourage fluids and rest, coughing and deep breathing, hygiene when handling secretions, handwashing
what diseases are grouped together as COPD?
what is the causative organism for TB?
acid-fast bacillus (AFB) mycobacterium tuberculosis
what organs does TB affect?
what are the signs and symptoms of TB?
chronic productive cough, night sweats, low grade fever, blood tinged sputum
how is TB diagnosed?
PPD(mantoux) and confirmed by chest x-ray
describe treatment for TB
Isoniazid or Rifampid for 6 months or longer, may also use antibiotics
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