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In decending order, what primates are the most related to humans?
Humans, then chimps and binobos, then Gorillas, then Orangutans, then Gibbons. (The farther away from humans, the older)
What are Hominins?
hominids excluding the African apes; all human species that ever existed (Modern humans and our ancestors) Non chimp/ape human ancestors and modern humans.
What are homo sapiens and what characteristics do they have?
Homo Sapiens are primates and have opposable thumbs, symbolic thought, spoken language, and are bipedal, big brained, and social.
What human traits reflect that our primate ancestors lived in trees?
–Grasping ability and manual dexterity
–Depth and color vision to see ripe fruit, depth perception for judging distances between branches when jumping from tree to tree.
-Vision oriented 
–Learning ability based on a large brain
–Substantial parental investment in offspring
–Tendencies toward sociality and cooperation

What are some similarities primates share with humans?
•Ability to learn from experience and change behavior
•Tools turn up among several nonhuman species
•Other primates are habitual hunters

* social groups/hierarchies
* tendencies toward sociality and cooperation
What are some differences between primates and humans?
–Substantial gap between primate society and fully developed human culture
–Cooperation and sharing are much more developed among humans
–Human females lack a visible estrus cycle and ovulation is concealed

*Humans mate throughout the year while primates ovulate at one time
•Human pair bonds for mating are more exclusive and durable than those of chimps
•Humans have rules of exogamy (marriage) and kinship

*We're bipedal (walk upright)

*We have a huge brain for our body size

*We have symbolic thought (burials)

*We have spoken language

When did humans split from common ancestor of chimps?
6 million years ago
When was Australopithecines around?
4-2 million years ago
When did Homo (our genus) come about?
2.4 million years ago
When did Homo Sapiens first appear?
about 200,000 years ago in Africa
What was Australopithecines?
small brained (chimp size)

small bodied


A. afarensis (Lucy)

Lived in easern and southern Africa
What was Homo habilis?
First tool makers (probably)
• Although new evidence suggests Australopithecines made tools.
• Small bodied and but brains are bigger than Australopithecines.
What was Homo erectus?
Larger brained (not quite us)
• Larger bodied
• Spread throughout Africa and into Asia
• But H. erectus expanded tool use, used fire.

* First we see with modern body proportions and first to leave Africa.
What were Neandertals?
Homo neanderthalensis
• Successful, cold adapted species -survived from 600,000 to 30,000 years ago.
• Thick bodied
• Large brained
• Lived in Europe and Asia
• Genetic evidence shows some interbreeding with humans.
• Had symbolic culture and ability for language.

*Twice as big as humans with more muscle, so needed twice as much calories.
What are anatomically modern humans?
• Modern Homo sapiens
• Compared to other hominin species we are gracile bodied (slim), big brained, small gutted, tool using, social, generalized diet.
• Genetic studies show all humans are descended from a small group of humans in Africa 200,000 years ago.
• Archaeology shows generalized diet going back 200,000 in southern Africa.
• Young and relatively genetically uniform species (homogenus) because of the bottleneck effect

*had to have some sort of water transport to get to Australia (though no evidence)

*exploitation of marine resources (fishing)
In what order did Homo Sapiens spread around the world from Africa?
First to Asia and Australia, then to Europe, and finally to the Americas.
What are examples of modern human behavior?

•Tool complexity

•Art (ochre and figurines)

•Broad exploitation of resources (like modern hunter gatherers)

•Long distance exchange

•Bone tools

•Earliest clear evidence is around 60-70 kya but certain elements may come earlier
Where is Blombos Cave and why is it significant?
It's in South Africa and has the earliest evidence of fully "modern" behavior shown through eaten shellfish and sea mamals (seals and dolphins), shell beads, bone tools, and an incised piece of ochre (piece of ochre w/ scratched design on it).
What is the Chave Cave and where is it located?
It has the earliest cave paintings in Europe and it is in France. It is not the cave with the virtual tour.
What is Lascaux?
Cave system in France with the virtual tour. Has different sections of the cave devoted to different types of cave paintings.
When did the first food production start?
10,000 years ago

farming with multiple independent beginnings
When did cities begin to emerge?
5,000 years ago with multiple independent begginnings
What are the keys to Human success with taking over the world?
Flexible: adaptation to different environments and conditions.

Humans inhabit every terrestrial ecosystem.

We adapt quickly because can adapt to our environment culturally instead of biologically like other animals
How do we adapt so fast and why do we have so much diversity?
Because of culture
What is culture?

•Culture: The shared manner in which a group of people cognitively organize their world.
•Culture is how you habitually make symbolic connections to things.

Basically anything we do as humans as a member of a society.

It's shared and learned.

Everything in culture is symbolic and ppl outside of your culure won't know what the symbols are. Ex. bald eagle vs. the quetzal in South America

•Tylor: Cultures–systems of human behavior and thought–  obey natural laws, so they
can be studied scientifically
What is enculturation?
the process by
which a child learns his or her culture
What are some characteristics of Culture?
• Symbolic
• Shared
• Always changing
• Holistic - encompasses everything we do

• Integrated
What does human cultural learning depend on?
Human cultural learning depends on the uniquely developed human capacity to use symbols

Symbolic thought is unique and crucial to cultural learning
Where is culture located, how is it transmitted, and what is the effect of culture being shared?

•Culture is located in and transmitted through groups

•Shared beliefs, values, memories, and expectations link people who grow up in the same culture

•Enculturation unifies people by providing common experiences
How does culture interact/affect nature?

•Culture takes natural biological urges and teaches us how to express them in particular ways
•Our culture affect the ways in which we perceive nature, human nature, and the natural world
•No 1:1 correlation between culture and environment
•Different cultures can adapt in unique ways to similar environments
•Cultural practices change the environment.
What does it mean to say that culture is integrated?
Cultures are integrated, patterned systems (If one part changes, other parts change as well)
What does it mean to say that culture is All-Encompassing?

Anthropologically, culture encompasses features sometimes regarded as trivial or unworthy of serious study
How can culture be both adaptive and maladaptive?

•Humans have biological and
cultural ways of coping with environmental stress

–What’s good for an individual isn’t
necessarily good for the group

–Adaptive behavior that offers short-term benefits to particular individuals may
harm the environment and threaten
the group’s long-term survival
Are there culural universals and, if so, can they have variability in different cultures? Explain.

•Features found in every culture; more or less distinguish Homo sapiens from other species

•We tend to think of culture as being natural.

•However, there is greater variability than we can appreciate.


•Incest is generally a universal taboo

•But what is considered incest varies among cultures depending on kinship systems.
What is the difference between universal, general, and particularity?
Universals are true in all cultures, while generals are true for a lot of cultures and particularities are things unique to a specific culture.
What are particularities?
things unique to a specific culture
Why does culture change constantly?
It is contested (Ex. protesting)

Culture is public and individual

Day-to-day actions make and remake culture

Individuals within a society have diverse motives
What is real culture?
How culture actually is practiced
What is ideal culture?
What people say or think their culture is
What is the difference between ideal and real culture?
Real is how culture actually is practiced, while ideal is how people say their culture is practiced.
What are the three levels of culture?
National culture, International culture, and subcultures.
What is national culture?
cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation
What is international culture?

cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries. Ex. McDonald's
What are subcultures?
identifiable cultural patterns existing within a larger culture. Ex. treckies, otakus
What is Ethnocentrism?
a tendency to view
one’s own culture as superior
and to use one’s own standards
and values in judging outsiders
What is Cultural relativism?
to use outside standards to judge behavior in a given society; such behavior should be evaluated in the context of the culture in which it occurs
What are the three main mechanisms of cultural change?
Diffusion, Acculturation, and Independent invention.
What is Diffusion?
borrowing from other cultures (kung fu movie style fight scenes in Hollywood movies) (direct vs. indirect, forced vs. unforced)
What is Acculturation?
exchange and mixing of cultural traditions through direct contact (Ex.: Cajun food – mix of African and European cooking traditions using local foods)
What is Independent invention?
independent invention of agriculture in the Middle east, Mexico, and China. Independent invention of pyramids around the world
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