Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019



keywords:
Bookmark and Share



Front Back
What is Cultural Evolution?

cultural change, not improvement

Not unilinear- culture does not evolve in one direction from primitive to advanced.

Many ways cultures can change, many different factors, unpredictable

No culture is more “advanced” than another culture

There are no “primitive” cultures – if you are alive today, you are modern.
What is Globalization?

•a series of processes that work to make modern nations and people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent
 
•Economic and political forces
•Long-distance communication
•Local people must increasingly cope with forces generated by progressively larger systems
Who is Boas?
Guy who realized that it wasn't native ppl who were changing the way they said the name for certain things in their language, but that the researchers weren't hearing the sounds right due to sound blindness.

We distinguish stimuli based on how accustomed we are to them
• Stimuli are relative
• Fieldwork with Inuit and Pacific Northwest
• Inconsistencies in transcription year to year and among nationalities of researchers.

Big Picture: Perceptions are distinguished by habit. Culture (your habit of thinking) determines how you perceive the world, even down to the sounds you hear
What is sound blindness?
Researchers noted that people in other cultures were unable to distinguish sounds.

Fan = fang = fell = fop

Proof of genetic inferiority (in 19th century “science”)

Big Picture: Perceptions are distinguished by habit. Culture (your habit of thinking) determines how you perceive the world, even down to the sounds you hear
What theory in Anthropology did Morgan and Tylor have? (what were they)
Evolutionary perspectives (applied Darwin's theory of evolution to culture)
What theory in Anthropology did Boas have? (what was he)
Historical perspective
What theory in Anthropology did Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown have? (what were they)
Functionalists
What happened during the age of exploration?
When Europeans first encountered diversity they didn't have science at the forefront of their mind and only had the bible to look at for an explanation.
Explaining diversity within the Bible such as the tower of babylon creating multiple languages or the lost tribe of Israel.
Understanding cultures for conversion and colonial administration
What happened during the Enlightenment?

  • Philosophers such as Hobbes and Rousseau

  • Went beyond the Bible in explaining human diversity

  • Used diversity to understand the fundamental nature of humanity.

How do anthropologists do field work?
They do ethnographies. study cultures like our project.
What are ways of studying modern societies?
Ethnographic studies. Emerce yourself in the culture, Live with the people you're studying, LEARN THEIR LANGUAGE!!!
What was the theory of Evolutionists? (Evolutionism)

  • (Mis)Applied Darwin’s On the Origins of Species (1859) to culture



  • Darwin’s idea: descent with modification

  • Works great for biology

  • Misapplied as an analogy for culture.

  • Misapplied as “survival of the fittest” to culture

  • Linked culture to biology

  • Fittest must be those who are most powerful

  • Tried to explain diversity through who is most powerful

  • Why do “we” have railroads and “they” use stone tools?

  • Promoted racist, colonial worldview

  • Unilineal Evolution

  • Armchair anthropologists

What did Herbert Spencer do?

  • Self taught thinker used his take on Darwin’s evolution to figure out everything

  • Unilineal evolution -simple to complex (this is untrue)

What did Louis Henry Morgan do?

  • Befriended and studied the customs of local Seneca

  • First to develop kinship studies and did earliest Ethnography done by an actual scientist.

  • Came up with the progression of unilinear evolution: savagery (pre agriculture), barbarism (have agriculture and pottery), and civilization (have writing system).

What is unilinear evolution and who invented it?
Created by Louis Henry Morgan.

  • Unilinear evolutionism: human society has evolved through savagery (pre agriculture), barbarism (agriculture and pottery), and civilization (writing system)

  • Used examples from history and ethnography for the stages.

  • Stages based on technology and social institutions

  • Stages corresponded to mental ability

Who was Edward Burnett Tylor?

  • Humans improve over time (go from simple to complex)

  • Seperated biology and culture saying All humans are biologically equal (distinct from other Evolutionists)



  • Focused on “survivals” (things that remain in our culture from a previous stage Ex. savagery)- archaic elements that survive in modern culture

  • Had a unilinearcultural path: animism (belief that things have souls), polyism, monotheism, then science which was like religion and would eventually take over and disprove all religion.

  • Offered definition of culture and proposed it as a topic that could be studied scientifically

Why were evolutionists wrong?

  • 1. Culture ≠ Biology

  • 2. Humans are very biologically uniform

  • 3. Biological evolution can be used as an analogy for cultural change rather than as a direct explanation

What  is Independent invention?
independent invention of agriculture in the Middle east, Mexico, and China. Independent
invention of pyramids around the world
Cultural Evolution

•Means cultural change, not improvement
• Not unilinear
•Many ways cultures can change, many different factors, unpredictable
• No culture is more “advanced” than another culture
•There are no “primitive” cultures – if you are alive today, you are modern.
What is Globalization?

•a series of processes that work to make modern nations and
people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent

•Economic and political forces

•Long-distance communication

•Local people must increasingly cope with forces generated by progressively larger systems
What did Boas do?
Discovered sound blindness. We distinguish stimuli based on how accustomed we are to them
•Stimuli are relative
•Fieldwork with Inuit and Pacific Northwest
•Inconsistencies in transcription year to year and among nationalities of researchers.
Big Picture: Perceptions are distinguished by habit
•Culture (your habit of thinking) determines how you perceive the world
evendown to the sounds you hear
What is sound blindness?
Researchers
noted that people in other cultures were unable to distinguish sounds.  Fan= fang = fell = fop

Proof of genetic inferiority (in 19th
century “science”)

Big Picture:
Perceptions are distinguished by habit
•Culture (your habit of thinking) determines how you perceive the world
evendown to the sounds you hear
What is Language?

•The primary means of communication (spoken or written)

•Transmitted through learning as part of enculturation
•Based on arbitrary, learned associations between words and the things they represent


•Language
is both verbal and physical symbolic communication
•Body language, Kinesics

•Writing
is a part of language but it is relatively new and culturally specific

•Language
is a key element of being human

•Although
other animals communicate, human language is uniquely complex


What are three things culture and language have in common?
Language and culture are deeply interrelated

Like culture, Language is:

Symbolic
Social
Constantly changing      
What does language allow humans to do?
–Conjure up elaborate images
–Discuss the past and future
–Share experiences with others
–Benefit from their experiences
How do nonhumans communicate?

•Call Systems

•Sign language: (Washoe •Lucy, Koko, Kanzi)
What is important about Washoe (chimpanzee)?
–First nonhuman to learn American Sign Language (1960s)
–Learned approx. 350 words
–Taught her adopted son and others some signs

Created novel combinations of words

What is important about lucy (the chimpanzee not the fossil)?

•Lucy (chimpanzee) was raised as a human child

•She would eat with silverware, make tea, flip through magazines

•Learned close to 140 words

•She was observed lying to researchers
         –Conversation where she would not admit that a pile of feces was hers
What is important about Koko (gorilla)?
–Said to understand and use 1,000 signs and understand 2,000 human words (spoken)
–Novel combinations of words (finger-bracelet)
–Loves cats and keeps them as pets/children
•When one of them died – Koko signed “frown, cry, frown, sad”


What is important about Kanzi (bonobo)?

•Taught lexicon system of symbols

•Understands complex spoken requests

•Learned some sign language from watching videos of Koko
What are some commonalities among nonhuman sign language?

•Non-human language use is limited to words and short phrases

•Human grammar -  sentence structure is non-existent
•They do have the mental capacity to form novel (untaught) combinations of words

 
What caused us to be able to develop the ability to speak?

•A mutated gene, FOXP2, helps explain why
humans speak but chimps do not
What is the FOXP2 gene and what does it do?
It's a mutated gene that helps explain why humans speak but chimps do not.
What is Broca's area and what does it do?
It's the structure in the brain that controls motor production of language.    

–Damage causes confused speech - they know what they want to say, but can’t get it out
What happens in individuals with a damaged Broca's area?
–Damage causes confused speech - they know what they want to say, but can’t get it out
What is Wernicke's area and what does it do?
structure in the brain that controls auditory speech comprehension

–Damage causes inability to comprehend incoming language stimuli

How does a damaged Wernicke's area affect an individual?
–Damage causes inability to comprehend incoming language stimuli
What is Kinesics?

•the study of nonverbal communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
How is language fundamental to humanity and what do we use it for?

•Language allows communicating complex symbolic ideas

•Allows planning – can communicate hypothetical situations

•Communication of inner thoughts and abstract ideas

•Allows humans to form wide social networks
What are some features of Language?

•Human language is made up of discrete bits of meaning

•Human language is arbitrary.

•Displacement: Language can refer to distant things

•Openness: Language can describe abstract or unprecedented things that you can picture in your head even if you've never seen it before.

•Prevarication: People can lie.

- It's deeply rooted in culture

- It's constantly changing

- Affects how you're perceived socially (Ex. Southern Red Neck accent)
What do Linguist and Linguistic Anthropologists do?

•study various elements of language

•Language follows a logical systematic structure, which can be decoded
What is Phonology?

the study of a language’s speech sounds
What is a Phone?
a sound
What is a Phoneme?
a sound contrast that makes a difference or differentiates meaning

a sound that has meaning. The part of language where you get different meanings (Ex. bit vs pit- the bi and the pi sounds make the words mean different things)
What is Phonetics?
the study of human speech sounds in general
Works in every language. Sounding out a word and writing the sounds down phonetically. Disecting words.
What is Phonemics?
studies only the significant sound contrasts of a given language
Breaking down sounds used in a specific language and use thar ro understand that specific language.
What is a morpheme?

  • The smallest recognizable unit of meaning in a language (Includes words and modifiers such as prepositions)

What is a lexicon?

  • The vocabulary or words in a language

What is syntax?

  • How you arrange words in a language; grammar

What do linguistic anthropologists study?

  • Linguistic Anthropologists study how a language is actually used

  • Real vs. Ideal

|< Previous x of y cards Next > >> >|