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Physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm. In laboratory experiments, this might mean delivering electric shocks or saying something likely to hurt another's feelings.
aggression
A personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status.
authoritarian personality
Emotional release. The catharsis view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one "releases" aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression.
catharsis
The affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined.
companionate love
The popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other.
complementarity
The tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner.
disclosure reciprocity
Unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members.
discrimination
An avoidant relationship style marked by distrust of others.
dismissive attachment
The redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target.
displacement
A condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it. Note: Equitable outcomes needn't always be equal outcomes.
equity
Believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups.
ethnocentric
An avoidant relationship style marked by fear of rejection.
fearful attachment
The theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress.
frustration-aggression theory
The blocking of goal-directed behavior.
frustration
Explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).
group-serving bias
Aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself. (also called affective aggression).
hostile aggression
The use of strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another's favor.
ingratiation
"Us"—a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity.
ingroup
The tendency to favor one's own group cause of conflict.
ingroup bias
An innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species.
instinctive behavior
Aggression that is a means to some other end.
instrumental aggression
The tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
just-world phenomenon
The tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a "good match" in attractiveness and other traits.
matching phenomenon
The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them.
mere-exposure effect
A motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions.
need to belong
"Them"-a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup.
outgroup
Perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. Thus, "they are alike; we are diverse."
outgroup homogeneity effect
The tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race.
own-race bias
A state of intense longing for union with another. Passionate lovers are absorbed in each other, feel ecstatic at attaining their partner's love, and are disconsolate on losing it.
passionate love
The presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well: What is beautiful is good.
physical-attractiveness stereotype
A preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members.
prejudice
Attachments marked by a sense of one's own unworthiness and anxiety, ambivalence, and possessiveness.
preoccupied attachment
Positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior.
prosocial behavior
Geographical nearness
proximity
(1) An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race, or (2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race.
racism
The theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources.
realistic group conflict theory
The perception that one is less well-off than others with whom one compares oneself.
relative deprivation
The theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events.
reward theory of attraction
Attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy.
secure attachment
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
self-disclosure
(1) An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex, or (2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex.
sexism
A motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups.
social dominance orientation
The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.
social identity
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished.
social learning theory
Culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations.
social scripts
A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information consequence of prejudice.
stereotype
A disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. Unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects.
stereotype threat
A person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination.
stigma consciousness
Accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group.
subgrouping
Accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as "exceptions to the rule."
subtyping
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