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Social Identity Theory
People identify with some groups (in-group) and separate themselves from others (out-group). Tajfel Elliott Knowing who we are and who we are not It can be used to explain prejudices. Tajfel tested it with the school boy research. Elliott eyes experiment.
Social Constructionism
Ideas are created through people/society e.g. women kind, men strong.  Natural for women to do housework – realised socially constructed and not natural. Says all identities are socially constructed and not personal + social.  Allows for identity change throughout life.
Minimal Group
Tajfel put the school boys into minimal groups for his experiment = groups of boys who had little in common Elliott – eyes experiment Even when put into a minimal group the boys still felt different to the other group = in-group and out-group. Discrimination very quickly develops.
Our bodies are important to our identity. It suggests that bodies are biological, physical and also social and psychological Understand how important the body is.  Modern body projects.  Effects of looks on identity
Core Identity
Erikson Marcia Psychosocial Our central identity – who we are and what makes sense for us Psychosocial theory
Reciprical Altruism
An action that one would do in the hopes of  receiving favours or some forms of preferential treatment.  In terms of evolution it could aid survival.  An example being the prisoner game Promoted studies that involve both human and non- humans in order to link humans and chimps common ancestor to this trait.  All of which is key in the understanding of evolution
Theory Of Mind (TOM)
Theory of mind aka TOM is an ability to evaluate situations or contexts and to go on to put oneself in another’s shoes.  They are able to see, think and feel from their perspective. It has an importance to psychology through evolutionary psychology as it offers an angle from which studies can focus on this would be deception.  Chandler et al used this to study children.
Natural Selection
Shows a process of genes adapting to better ensure survival.  Evolution shows that characteristics are fluid and some assist in survival or reproduction thus ensuring the survival of the favoured genetics. Importance may be see through the impact this has on Darwin’s theory of evolution, he saw a change in genetic coding.  This evidences evolutions existence and offers a debate for creationism based theories.
Sexual Selection
Is related to mating when in the psychological context.  It offers a way to see the benefits of reproduction for any species.  It also offers reasons as to how mates chose.  This choice is based on characteristics that one would wish to be passed on to offspring.  Only a mate with these characteristics will do.  Less popular characteristics would lead to low reproduction and a chance of that pool of genes may cease to exist. Not only can this add to evolutionary theories but it can add some information to biological and behavioural perspectives, due to behavioural and physical natures.  It shows through evolution that mates are chosen through strong desirable genes.
Watson - not a science needs observation & measurement Mental states not observable Innate factors Environmental factors Common features  Comparative approach Little Albert Phobias desensitisation Behaviour modification Ignoring cog & internal processes Underestimating innate biases  Garcia rats - nausea Behaviour - very influential perspective & has strong explanatory powers.  Practical implications: include systematic desensitisation for treating phobias. Behaviour modification in dealing with classroom disruption.
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s dogs.  Neutral stimulus = bell paired with unconditional stimulus = food elicited unconditional response = salivation.  Bell became conditional stimulus triggering conditional response to salivation  Presentation of bell led to expectancy of food conditional response of salivation.   It contributes to understanding of learning and how it happens without awareness or conscious intention to learn. Historical role as used by Watson to challenge value of introspection emphasis in psychology on measurable data & influence of environment on learning.  Important for use of its principles in treatment therapy of phobias and PTSD
Operant Conditioning
Skinner – lever pressing delivers food to rat = positive reinforcement, likely to be repeated.  Behaviour resulting in removal of something aversive is negatively enforced i.e. lever stops electric shock = negatively reinforced likely to repeat. Aversive outcome -removal of something pleasant – less likely to repeat. Techniques used to modify behaviour using reinforcers i.e. gold stars.  Skinner – punishment is unethical & ineffective in changing behaviour
Category learning
Cognitive approach Information processing Human & non human learn general relationships  Dolphins Hypothesis testing Bruner successive scanning Conservative focus  Murphy & Allopenna used meaningful material - relevant background knowledge used to link attribute thematically. Fodor - categories not learned but innate – extreme view and criticised as knowledge changes and develops – learning must be involved Category learning important in emphasising role of cognitive processes in learning and demonstrating the influences of past experience.  Raises questions re the extent to which categories must be learned and suggests that there could be different aspects to learning
Sociocultural perspective
Use of cultural tools i.e. Physical tools i.e. computers or psychological tools e.g. language. Emmbedded in social and cultural systems. Gives central importance to the role of culture. Mediated action - interplay between learning and tools. Learning - process of enculturation; Interrelationship between tools and power and authority e.g. Keogh’s study of children found that boys dominate a computer based activity. Implications - the organisation of computer based classroom activities. Social interaction - central to learning. Meaning is jointly constructed by learners.  This led to research in how learning occurs within interpersonal exchanges i.e Mercer’s analysis of classroom interaction The social perspective offers and alternative view of learning to that offered by e.g. conditioning theory and emphasises practical applications and education intervention  
**A chemical that is released from a neuron and influences a neighbouring cell ** This chemical transmitter substance (messenger) is stored at the terminal of the presynaptic neuron and the receptors for this chemical located on the surface of the postsynaptic neuron. **The specificity of the shape of the neurotransmitter and the receptor, analogous to a key (neurotransmitter) fitting a lock (receptor). means that of a neurotransmitter from one synapse wafts across to another, it is without effect if it cannot engage with the receptors of the ‘foreign’ cell. **Neurons are characterised by the neurotransmitter that they store and release, eg serotonin = serotonergic.
(GOTTLIEB, model of dynamic ‘gene-environment’ interactions underlying development) **The collection of genes within each cell of an individual is terms its genotype **The genotype constitutes a source of information, which together with the environment determines the development and structure of an individual. **Genotype is determined at fertilization by the combination of genes that are contributed by the parents and it remains constant throughout life. **Growth & development result from cells starting the process of differentiation to form different types of cells with various functions.  The timing and nature of differentiation depends on properties of the genes within a given cell.  Once called ‘blueprints’ for development, which suggests a fixed and predetermined course of development checked against coding instructions, which is not how things are. ‘A source of information’ or ‘influence’ on development are more accurate since events in the body are dependent on the external environment, eg availability of nutrients and the effects of behaviour itself on the environment. **GOTTLIEB’s model demonstrates this concept, showing bi-directional influences on individual development.  Eg the growing child effects action on the world by its behaviour, as in smiling at caregivers, and this evokes behaviour in others. **Genes interact with their immediate cellular environment and the whole animal interacts with the external environment. **Rigid dichotomies in terms of the importance of either genetics or the environment should be avoided.  
**Exposure to different environments, such as those in which social interactions differ along a dimension of friendly to hostile, can have implications for how the process of development occurs.  The actual structure or behaviour that appears as a result of the genotype interacting with the environment is termed the phenotype **The physical structure and behaviour of an animal that arises from the interaction of the genotype and the environment. **Features of the phenotype change as a result of experience.  Eg muscles strengthen with use and such things as joy, fear and aggression are learned by the consequences of behaviour. **The genotype is a kind of potential for development into a number of phenotypes, and the end products depend upon the environment experienced along the way. **Some phenotypes will be at an advantage compared with others, eg they will reproduce more effectively. The type of genotype that contributes to such a phenotype will end to increase in frequency in the population, which is the basis of evolution.
Action Potential
**Exposure to different environments, such as those in which social interactions differ along a dimension of friendly to hostile, can have implications for how the process of development occurs.  The actual structure or behaviour that appears as a result of the genotype interacting with the environment is termed the phenotype **The physical structure and behaviour of an animal that arises from the interaction of the genotype and the environment. **Features of the phenotype change as a result of experience.  Eg muscles strengthen with use and such things as joy, fear and aggression are learned by the consequences of behaviour. **The genotype is a kind of potential for development into a number of phenotypes, and the end products depend upon the environment experienced along the way. **Some phenotypes will be at an advantage compared with others, eg they will reproduce more effectively. The type of genotype that contributes to such a phenotype will end to increase in frequency in the population, which is the basis of evolution.  
Brain Lesions
BRAIN LESIONS (GAGE accidental damage to R frontal lobe – marked changes in his personality. PET, fMRI, Experimental lesions applied to non-human animals – controversial, unethical) **Damage to a region of the brain, for example in an accident or in surgery. **Useful for study of the relationship between the brain and behaviour.  Neurons in the location of the damage die and so any changes in behaviour suggest the contributions these regions usually make to normal functioning. (GAGE).  Localisation of function within the brain is debatable.   **Unfortunately damage is rarely neat, several areas may be affected simultaneously, also other areas of the brain may take over/ compensate ** Outsider viewpoint although some neuroimaging techniques do use insider accounts since researchers ask Q’s about experiences as they record brain activity.
Trait theories of personality
Characters which are enduring across time and situations i.e. excitable or caring.  Trait theories describe personality as bipolar traits i.e. reliable/unreliable, or group traits, found through factor analysis to form clusters not personality dimensions i.e. extraversion includes traits like risk taking and sociability.  Traits express themselves in beliefs, preferences and behaviour. Trait theories start from the lexical hypothesis.  Cattells 16PF  Goldberg’s Big Five. Useful tests have been developed from trait theories.  There’s evidence for stability of personality traits so the tests could have predictive value.  Cattle & Kline found correlations between traits and occupation.  i.e. artists score high on imaginative and physicist on abstract thinking. Traits arising from trait theories are widely used in areas such personnel selection
Galton –tests to measure psychological characteristics i.e. intelligence/personality.  Tests able to collect large amounts of data information about range and distribution of individual differences in a form ready for analysis. Eysenck’s EPQ – measures a person’s degree of extraversion in a quantifiable formcomparisons to be made between individuals.  When developing new tests, must ensure they’re reliable and valid instruments.  Established tests high profit industry. Tests involve questionnaires so possible problems with demand characteristics & giving answers thought to be socially desirable answers.  Problems can be addressed by inclusion of items designed to identify these kinds of influence.  Another problem – questionnaire often have forced-choice format which may not be accurate for some people so results give a distorted picture.   The use of  tests like these are crucial to  psychology as an empirical and scientific discipline. Widely used in research and applied settings i.e. personal selection and careers counselling in forensic psychology and clinical practice
The extent to which genetics are responsible for the variability of a characteristic in a particular population.  It’s a statistical concept and so does not provide information about individuals, but assess the relative contribution of genetics an the environment of individual differences. Genetic contribution expressed as a proportion - Decimal or a percentage. Research studied twins. Heritability studies are carried out in behaviour genetics. Studies criticised on methodological grounds i.e. use of biased samples and for assumption that twins whether MZ or DZ share identical environment. Studies important for providing evidence that most temperament and personality traits are associated with quite a high level of genetic influence.  I.e. Loehlin found heriability estimates between 0.28 – 0.46 for all five factors of Costa & McCrae’s OCEAN model of personality
Eysenck – personality can be expressed on two dimensions, extraversion-introversion.  Extraversion associated with a range of traits including sociable, risk taking, sensation-seeking, lively and active.  Theory suggests individual differences in extraversion are determined by biological factors & specifically by levels of cortical arousal controlled by the ARAS. Extraverts are permanently underaroused and engage in behaviour likely to increase arousal levels.  Buss & Plomin’s EAS theory  and research into temperament.  Infants vary on three factors; emotionality, sociability & activity – last two associated with extraversion.  Can be argued as Buss & Plomin that these differences are genetically determined. There is psychometric and behavioural evidence but no clear evidence to establish that extraversion has a biological basis It is an important concept in that it is a factor in other personality theories i.e. those of Goldberg’s Big Five theory and the five factor theory of Costa & McCrae, suggesting it is a useful dimension to use when describing individual differences in personality
Implicit personality theories
Implicit personality theories = lay theories which are based on traits i.e. sociable or kind. They assume coherence within personality i.e. someone who is assertive is more likely to be energetic than someone who is passive and people behave in stable ways across time and situations.  As trait combinations vary between cultures implicit personality theories are likely to be learned from the culture.  Everyday descriptions used are common in the language, the lexical hypothesis suggests ways personality is expressed in ordinary language relate in a meaningful way to personality in everyday life. Questionnaire tests of these theories show they appear to have a hierarchical structure, with more general higher-order traits i.e. consciousness, at the top can then be broken down into clusters of surface traits i.e. punctuality reliability and self discipline – lowest and most observable level of the hierarchy, express themselves in behaviour and the beliefs, feelings and preferences which a individual expresses i.e. I never miss deadlines Important because People use them consciously or unconsciously to describe themselves and others and help them understand why people behave like they do.  They allow people to predict what others might do and so make the social world more manageable.  Implicit personality theories also important because they’re reflected in more formal psychological trait theories.
Gibson’s direct perception
Gibson’s theory of direct perception emphasises the importance of bottom up processes in perception.  Gibson believes that incoming sensory information is so rich that we do not need to integrate it with existing knowledge (unlike Gregory’s constructivist theory) in order to perceive.  Direct perception appears to be automatic & may be unconscious.  For example a frog sensing a fly will react automatically to catch it. Direct perception is important because it helps us understand the processes involved in perception.
Bottleneck theories of attention
Bottleneck theories of attention suggest that incoming sensory information is processed to some extent and then selected for attention.  This is because we have a limited capacity for processing sensory information.  Theorists differ as to when the selection takes place.  Broadbent’s split span research shows that selection occurs at an early stage of processing based on physical characteristics of the information and Triesman’s cocktail party effect suggests late selection. Bottleneck theories of attention are important as they support Kahneman’s view of a limited capacity central processor and they help us understand how information is selected for further processing.
Limited capacity attention
Attention is a cognitive filtering process which selects which information to allocate resources to.  Most theories agree that we have a limited capacity for attention.  This idea was first proposed by Kahneman who likened the brain to a limited capacity central processor.   Simons & Levin’s change blindness experiement also backed up this theory. However dual task studies by Posner & Bois and McLeod have shown that attentional tasks can be performed simultaneously if the responses are in different modalities. This is important because it provides theoretical models of how information is attended to and the findings can be applied to everyday life e.g. LBFS accidents.
Attentional spotlight
Attention can be likened to a spotlight (Posner).  This shows how incoming information may be filtered; information within the beam of the spotlight receives the most attention and processing.  Information outside of the beam may also be processed unconsciously and this saves valuable resources.  An auditory example is listening to a piece of music; we can either listen to the piece as a whole or concentrate on one instrument. The attentional spotlight is important as it is a good metaphor for how cognitive resources are allocated and how we can control attention.
Top-down processing
Top-down processing emphasises the importance of existing knowledge.  Gregory’s constructivist theory is an example of top-down processing.  It says that sensory information is incomplete and that we integrate it with existing knowledge to form perceptual hypotheses.  This is a conscious process.  One example of this is the Muller Lyer illusion where we interpret the figure in terms of our knowledge and experience. Top-down processing is important because it helps us understand cognitive processes involved in perception.  This knowledge can be applied to everyday situations eg. LBFS accidents.
Fundamental attribution error
Tendancy when explaining behaviour of other people to favour internal rather than external attributions. Doesn’t apply to our own behaviour where we favour external factors (actor/observer effect – Storms 1973) Explains why judegements about behavioural causes may not be accurate or reliable. However the impact of culture should be recognised – Miller 1984 highlighted the increasing influence of Hindu culutural impact at various ages.
Attribution theory
Theory which aims to describe and expain the processes involved in attributing causes to people’s behaviour. Asks questions such as what info do people use when making judgements about causes? And how is that info processed. Proposes that people distinguish between internal/dispositional factors and external/situational factors in attempts to understand behaviours
Mental structure containing all knowledge relating to particular object ; structure is the particular way that knowledge is organised, stored and accessed. Schematic processing = efficient way of processing info based on schemas. Person, role and event schemas have all been identified. Limited capacity processor requires efficient means of info holding which schema provides (cognitive psych). Enable us to simplify complexity. However, can cause us to act on wrong assumptions causing bias and distortions, which may be self-confirming.
Mental representation of a person as more like a ‘typical’ member of a social category than the person actually is It represents thet way that social perceivers produce an identical image each time tey encounter a member of a social group to whom the stereotype applies. Schema theory tells us that this overgeneralisation is an inevitable consequence of a basic cognitive process, and causes a distortion of perception
Self serving bias
Info processing bias which serves the perceivers interests eg tendancy to attribute ones own success to internal factors, and failure to external causes Empirical tendancy by Lau and Russell, 1980. Importance as might explain what we expect to happen – congnitive bias; also possibly motivational bias – need to feel in control and centre of successful action. Shrauger 1975 demosntrated link between self-esteem and self serving bias. However research has not yet conclusively distinguished between cognitive and motivational explanations
Episodic Memory
A subsection of long term memory (ltm). This function allows one to remember personal events esp. those related to time and place. It has a relationship with autobiographical memory. It is aka declarative memory as part of a group of memory types that relate to knowing that rather than knowing than. Knowledge of this form of memory has allowed studies to occur that relate to brain injuries.  It has had an impact on Vargha-Khadem’s findings as it points to the location in the brain of where some memory may occur esp. Hippocampus and the temporal cortex which could affect the knowledge surrounding Alzheimer’s.
Flashbulb Memory
A memory that could occur at any point but has great significance to emotionally distressing memories and Unexpected.  People tend to remember Where they were at these times.  A flashbulb memory is said by Brown and Kulick to hold 6 types of info. They are vivid, detailed and last longer than other memories. Evidence for this can be found in Linton’s diary i.e. lack of emotional situations lead to loss of certain info Flashbulb research seems to show a correlation between emotion and memory. Also this type of memory could indicate a way of retaining and retrieving information. This could be important when a need arises to have more detail i.e. interviews or exams it could offer remembering techniques.
Levels of Processing
A theory of Craik and Lockhart’s that shows three levels to processing, structural, acoustic and semantic. The Research found a better memory was linked to deeper processing such as semantic processing. The generation effect evidences this as we gather we semantically process thus remembrance is better. Levels of processing is important to individuals that need to use a certain memory type to suit a specific  context i.e. semantic memory can aid techniques used to revise for exams. For  Psychology it shows how memories can function at different levels
Collective memories
This can show memories being created and retained in groups rather than individuals. These memories are not always accurate may change depending on who tells the story.  This can also show how false memories can be implanted within groups and societies. This is important to the social constructionists perspective as it suggest there is a social element to memory and  processing
encoding specificity principle
Theoretical rationale for retrieval-enhancing techniques. The techniques are based on several different theoretical frameworks, including the encoding specificity principle, presented by Endel Tulving (1975, 1983), which has been an influential theoretical framework in the field of memory for decades. This centres on the relationship between encoding and retrieval, and suggests that we remember more if the cues that are available during retrieval overlap or match with cues that were registered at encoding. Indeed, the effectiveness of a retrieval cue is dependent on how many properties or features it shares with the item that is being retrieved. More elaborate processing at encoding creates a richer network of associations, increasing the number of features or cues available for overlap. Recognition tests provide more retrieval cues than recall tests, increasing the likelihood of overlap between the features. Tulving suggests that there may be several retrieval paths to the information that was encoded, so that information not accessed via one retrieval cue could be accessed via an alternative retrieval cue. For example, ‘Thomas’ might be accessed via the cue ‘Welsh poet’ or the cue ‘Dylan’.
Autobiographical memory
Autobiographical memories are episodes remembered from our individual life, including biographical information and past experiences. Martin Conway (1996) writes that these memories include the location and time period in which the episode took place; this is known as spatiotemporal knowledge. However, we also place the episode in our own personal history as in ‘this was my first trip abroad’ or ‘this was my first day at secondary school’, so that these memories will also include factual knowledge. Conway stresses that these memories are our personal interpretations of events and not veridical or accurate representations of past experiences. In a pioneering study of autobiographical memory, Marigold Linton used a memory diary as a way of investigating her own autobiographical memory. In a six-year long study, she recorded daily at least two events from her own life. Every month, she randomly selected records in pairs from the accumulating pool of records, and tried to estimate the chronological order in which they had occurred and the date of each recorded event. By the sixth year of the study, 30 per cent of the events recorded had been totally forgotten (Linton, 1982, pp.77–81). She found that her memory for reallife events faded at about the rate of 5 per cent a year. Some loss was associated with repetitions of the same or similar occurrences – the distinctiveness of these repeated events decreased over time. Note that, in Section 3.4 of this chapter, we described memory for personal experiences as constituting autobiographical memory. There is considerable overlap between the concepts of episodic and autobiographical memory, and differing views on how they are distinguished. For instance, Conway (2001) sees episodic memory as a transient memory, while autobiographical memory comprises a person’s enduring memories of personally significant experiences. But the research described here sees episodic memory as a more general and enduring type of personal memory of which autobiographical memory is a part.
Self-actualisation was defined by Maslow as “to become everything that one is capable of becoming.”  It is the drive towards developing ones own potential and achieving self-fulfilment.   Maslow identified a hierarchy of human needs, starting with physiological needs followed by safety, love, belonging and esteem. Self-actualisation is at the top of the list and is a being need.  How the need is expressed is particular to the individual – it could be artistic, athletic or academic.   Maslow believed that if the conditions were right self-actualisation would occur spontaneously.   Maslow studied a number of probably self-actualisers including Albert Einstein and identified a number of traits which he believed they shared.  His study was, however, criticised for the circularity of its argument as it could be argued that the people he selected has been picked for the very traits he identified.  For example, it is not surprising to find that someone at the top of his field is doing a job that he loves. It is a key concept in Carl Roger’s person-centred counselling.
Defence Mechanisms
Freud postulated that when we experience anxiety arising from intrapsychic conflict we unconsciously develop defence mechanisms to protect ourselves from these feelings. Three key defence mechanisms are: Repression – where disturbing impulses are shut out of consciousness. Displacement – where the impulse is redirected to another target e.g. hostility towards a parent expressed as hostility towards a teacher. Sublimation – the displacement of sexual energy (libido) to non-sexual activity e.g. art Defence mechanisms may explain why we do everyday things, such as forget a dental appointment that we have been dreading. Defence mechanisms are an important concept in analysis, particularly those that an individual has used in their past.  Some analysts believe that the defence mechanisms a person uses are indicative of their personality.
Personal Constructs
Kelly put forward a theory that one of the ways in which we make sense of the world is by applying bipolar discriminations such as friendly-cold or lively-reserved, which he called personal constructs.  He explored this concept by use of a repertory grid.  Participants were asked to work through a list of people in their personal lives.  They were then asked to consider three of those and state a way in which two were similar and the third different.  For example, if they said two were lively and the third reserved then the personal construct that was identified was lively-reserved.  Once a list of personal constructs was formed the participants worked through their list of people deciding which end of the construct best fitted each person.  The resulting grid was then analysed to look for patters which may tell us how people experience others. People with very rigid personal constructs tend to have problems in relationships. Personal constructs provide us with an insight into the subjective experience of how individuals view others.  It is also used in fixed role therapy to help people to see the world in different ways.
Freud identified three aspects of the self; the id which focuses on the pleasure an individual derives when his biological needs are satisfied, the ego which is the part of the self that is reality testing and tries to integrate the different aspects of the self and the superego or conscience. Psychodynamics relates to the conflict between the three different aspects of self. This inner conflict causes angst and Freud postulated that we develop defence mechanisms in an attempt to avoid these anxieties.  He identified 9 defence mechanisms which later analysts added to.  They include repression, displacement, sublimation, projection and reaction formation. It is an important concept in the development of psychoanalysis and also as an explanation for some of our everyday behaviours e.g. being late for a dreaded appointment.
Oedipal Conflict
This is one of Freud’s theories and describes how a young boy desires his mother and therefore sees his father as a rival for her affections, which results in hostility towards and fear of his father. Oedipal conflict arises when boys are in the phallic stage of their development, when the primary source of pleasure is the penis.  This occurs at around the age of 5.   The conflict is resolved by identification with the father’s role and characteristics and introjection of his values and attitudes.  Freud linked the process of resolution to the development of the superego.   This theory has been criticised because Freud based his theories on his own experience and he grew up in a patriarchal Jewish family with a remote father. It is important as one of the concepts of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory which led to the development of psychoanalysis.
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