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What is Anthropology?
Study of humans. Holism or Holistic Approach.
What is Biological Anthropology?
Study of Human Evolution. Biological nature of humans-especially Bones and mechanics and human ecology, study of Primates. Study of population Gentics, Forensic anthropology.
What is Archaeology?
Study of material culture. Includes lots of digging but also ethnoarchaeological work and experimental work.
What is Linguistic Anthropology?
Study of Human Languages.
What is Cultural Relativism?
Cultural relativism is the principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood in terms of his or her own culture.
What is Enthnocentrism?
Belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
What is Participant Obeservation?
As the name implies, the researcher goes to the field (usually a community), lives with the people for some time, and participates in their activities in order to know and feel their culture.
What is Ethnography?
The scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures.
What is Culture?
The attitudes and behavior characteristic of a particular social group.
What is Holistic Approach?
Believing that the psychological, physical and social should be taken into account and seen as a whole.
What is Thick Description?
In anthropology and other fields, a thick description of a human behavior is one that explains not just the behavior, but its context as well, such that the behavior becomes meaningful to an outsider.
What is Emic Approach?
Behavior patterns unique to a a specific
group or ethnicit
What is Etic Approach?
Invariant behavior pattern.
What is Particularism?
The principle of leaving each state in an empire or federation free to govern itself and promote its own interests, without reference to those of the whole.
What is Code Switching?
In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence.
What is Post-modernism?
Postmodernism is a tendency in contemporary culture characterized by the rejection of objective truth and global cultural narrative.
What is Reflexive?
Taking account of itself or of the effect of the personality or presence of the researcher on what is being investigated
What is Diachronic?
Concerned with the way in which something, esp. language, has developed and evolved through time.
What is Synchronic?
Concerned with something, esp. a language, as it exists at one point in time.
What are Field Techniques? Interviews, Informants, Dictation, Questionaires?
Interviews are asking a person directly.
Informants are someone informing you about someone else.
Dictation is someone declaring something about the Group.
Questeionaries are something people answer.
What are Hunter and Gatherers?
People who hunt and gather food in their surroundings.
What are Horticulturalist?
 Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time. Groups that do some farming of land but doesn't rely soley on it.
What are Pastoralists?
Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, sheep, and so forth. Specialize in Transhumance, winter to summer migrations.
What is Agriculture?
The dependency of farming in order to support larger populations.
What is Domestication?
The process of changing plants or animals so they can no longer survive or breed without help from humans.
What is Transhumance?
The migration of communities from winter to summer locations and vis-versa.
What is Slash and Burn?
Slash and burn consists of cutting and burning of forests or woodlands to create fields for agriculture or pasture for livestock, or for a variety of other purposes. It is sometimes part of shifting cultivation agriculture, and of transhumance livestock herding. It can be supplimented by hunting and gathering.
What is Seasonal Round?
The annual pattern followed in the production of food,
What is Shabano?
A hut in which the Yanomano indians made and lived in.
What is a Mongongo nut?
A nut from a tree that the Bushmen ate.
What is Dialect?
A dialect of a programming language is a (relatively small) variation or extension of the language that does not change its intrinsic nature.
What is Pidgin?
A grammatically simplified form of a language, used for communication between people not sharing a common language. Pidgins have a limited vocabulary, some elements of which are taken from local languages, and are not native languages, but arise out of language contact between speakers of other languages
What is Creole?
A mother tongue formed from the contact of two languages through an earlier pidgin stage
  • - a Portuguese-based Creole
What is grammer?
Rules of a certian language.
What is Syntax?
It's using a language out of normal order.
Such as the way Yoda from Star Wars talks.
What is Phoneme?
Any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another, for example p, b, d, and t in the English words pad, pat, bad, and bat.
What is Phonetics?
The study and classification of speech sounds.
Think: Hooked on Phonetics!
What is a Symbol?
Something that stands for something else. It is learned and understood by cultures. It is connected to social ruels and conventions.
What is a Sign?
Anything that conveys information.
What is an Icon?
A sign in which is connected by similarity.
What is an Index?
A sign which is connected by space and time.
Examples: Dark Clouds, Microwave Beeps, Limping.
What is the Tasmanian Food Taboo?
They won't eat Fish!
What is Core Symbols?
A culturally important symbol by people of a culture who see it as strongly postive or negitive. A sort of rule.
What are Key Scenarios?
Rags to Riches! Historical Figures! Popular Figures! Basis of American Dreams.
What is Root Metaphor?
Time is money! The Heart of...! The Brains of...!
What is Allophone?
Any of the speech sounds that represent a single phoneme, such as the aspirated k in kit and the unaspirated k in skit, which are allophones of the phoneme k.
What is Tonal Language?
It's a langauge where the same word means different things based on the tone that is used.
What is Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
The linguistic relativity principle, or the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, is the idea that differences in the way languages encode cultural and cognitive categories affect the way people think, so that speakers of different languages think and behave differently because of it.
What is Diglossia?
A situation in which two languages (or two varieties of the same language) are used under different conditions within a community, often by the same speakers. The term is usually applied to languages with distinct “high” and “low” (colloquial) varieties, such as Arabic.
What is Deep Structure?
(in generative grammar) The abstract representation of the syntactic structure of a sentence.
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