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What are some traits of mamals?
Homoeothermic, lactation, internal gestation, parental care, social organisms
How do primate senses compare to those of other mamals?

•Less emphasis on olfaction
•More emphasis on vision-
           -binocular vision (overlap, both eyes see it) -           -Stereoscopic-to both hemispheres, depth. -           -color vision


     
 
What is binocular vision?
Vision using two eyes with overlapping fields of view so that both eyes see something.
What is stereoscopic vision?
to both hemispheres, depth

Awareness of the relative distances of objects from the observer, by means of binocular vision only and based on retinal disparity. How you can see depth and the shape of an object.
What are some characteristics of primates (minus vision and apposable digits)?

•Small litters

•Long gestation

•Long juvenile period

•Live longer

•Larger brains

•Increased learning and complex behavior
What is aductive?
an "additional" toe like chimps that comes out of the side of the foot and can grab onto things.
What is abuctive?
toe like ours with big toe in line with rest of toes.
What are some characteristics that all primates have?

  • aposable digits and grasping hands

  • binocular vision and stereoscopic vision

What are the different types of locomotion primates have?

•Vertical clinging and leaping -- prosimians
•Quadrupedalism
•Palmigrade – monkeys/apes
•Knuckle-walking – chimp, bonobo, gorilla
•Fistb walking – orangutan
•Some with prehensile tail – cebids
•Brachiation – cebids, gibbons
•Bipedalism -- humans
What is quadrupedalism?
Walking on four legs
What is arboreal?
living in trees
What is palmigrade?
Walking on palms of hands
What is brachiation?
swinging by the arms from branch to branch
What are primate hands and feet like?

•Grasping hands and feet
–With opposable thumbs and big toes

•Nails instead of claws
        –Few exceptions to this rule
         -Strepsirhines retain a grooming claw
What is the arboreal hypothesis?
that primates developed binocular vision because they needed to have depth perception for jumping/swinging from branch to branch because they were living in trees.
What is the visual predadation hypothesis?
primates developed binocular vision in order to catch prey (insects), as opposed to prey like deer who have vision like (;^;) mostly on the sides of their body to see predators behind them. Primates have vision like \,,/ because they must've eaten insects.
What are the two purposes of teeth?
eating and weapons
Why are teeth important in studying primates?

•Preserve well

•Reveal diet

•Help classify species

•General (all teeth the same) vs specialized…
What are the four types of teeth?

  • Incisors (bite)



  • Canines (bite)



  • Premolars (crush and chew -- cusps)



  • Molars (crush and chew -- cusps are y-shaped in apes)

Who are the only ones who have y-shaped molars?
apes
What is the ancestral primate dental formula and who is it found in?
2133 and it's found in Lorises, pottos, and galagos. 
What is the dental formula for Lorises, pottos, and galagos?
2133
Who has the dental formula 2133?
Lorises, pottos, and galagos
What is the derived dental pattern and who is it found in?
2123 and it is found in all old world monkeys, apes, and humans.
What is the dental formula for old world monkeys?
2123
What is the dental formula for apes and humans?
2123
Who has the dental formula 2123?
All Old World monkeys, apes, and humans
What are some characteristics of nocturnal primates?
Large eyes, smell, movable ears
What does diurnal mean?
out during the day (opposite of nocturnal)
What is included in the primate suborder of strepsirhini?
Lemurs, Lorises, and Galagos
What are the two suborders of primates?
strepsirhini and haplorhines
What are two differences between haplorhini and strepsirhini skulls?
Haplorhini: relatively short rosturm (snout) and fully enclosed eye orbit (no post orbital bar)
Strepsirhini: relatively long rostrum (snout) and postorbital bar
Does Haplorhini or Strepsirhini have a post orbital bar?
Strepsirhini have a post orbital bar
Which suborder of primates is the most "primitive" or ancestral?
Strepsirhini
What primates does suborder Strepsirhini include?
Lemurs, Lorises, and Galagos
What primate suborder do Lemurs, Lorises, and Galagos belong to?
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: most primitive or ancestral
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: retention of some claws (grooming claw)
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: reliance on olfaction (smell)
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: laterally placed eyes
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: post orbital bar
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: shorter gestation and maturation
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic:wet pad on nose
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: dental specialization (dental comb)
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: presence of a tapetum lucidum (membrane on the eye that reflects light for night vision)
Strepsirhini
What is tapetum lucidum?
a membrane on the eye that reflects light for night vision
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: elongated snouts?
Strepsirhini
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: unfused mandible
Strepsirhini
What is Strepsirhine rhinarium?
Wet pad on nose
Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: found in Africa and Asia
Strepsirhini
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