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Critical Thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions
Hindsight Bias
tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon
Overconfidence
we tend to think we know more than we do
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
Hypothesis
a testable prediction often implied by a theory
Operational Definition
a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables Example- intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
Replication
repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to
Case Study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Survey
technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
False Consensus Effect
tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Random Sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic Observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation Coefficient
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well either factor predicts the other
Illusory Correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
Experiment
the investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) while controlling other relevant factors by random assignment of subjects
Double-blind Procedure
both the subject and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the subject has received the treatment or a placebo
Placebo
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
Experimental Condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes subjects to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
Control Condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment; serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Random Assignment
assigning subjects to experimental and control conditions by chance
Independent Variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated (the variable whose effect is being studied)
Dependent Variable
the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Standard Deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean
Statistical Significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
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