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What divides into the esophagus and the larynx?
PHARYNX
What becomes the trachea? And the trachea divides into how many bronchi?
LARYNX 2
The ___ shaped upper airway that is made when the ____________ and _______________ join to form the what?
Y ORAL CAVITY & NASAL CAVITY PHARYNX
Explain what the nasal cavity does?
-It gives HEAT, HUMIDIFY, & CLEAN the AIR coming through the nose -As the AIR moves IN, MUCOUS traps the particles -It also TRAPS WATER as the air MOVES OUT
What is the backup airway called?
ORAL CAVITY
What does the Pharynx do?
It CONNECTS the 2 AIRWAYS & FUNNELS into 1 airway, the LARYNX
What is another name of the Larynx? And where it enter into?
The VOICE BOX- it is the ENTRANCE to the TRACHEA & LUNGS
What does the Larynx do?(2)
-Epiglottis COVERS the opening of the larynx & PROTECTS it from SOLIDS or LIQUIDS -Vocal cord VIBRATE with air passing out which ALLOWS human to TALK
What is another name for the Trachea? And their structure.
-WINDPIPE -The basic structure is that of C shaped bone RINGS STACKED UP which are connected by smooth muscle & connective tissue
What divides into 2 primary bronchi, one heading to each lung?
CARNIA
What is the major structures of the Respiratory Tract?
NASAL CAVITY ORAL CAVITY PHARYNX LARYNX TRACHEA
Lungs have 3 lobes and 2 lobes, which side goes with which?
-RIGHT LUNG is divided into 3 lobes -LEFT LUNG os divided into 2 lobes
What are the 3 lobes of the right lungs called?
SUPERIOR MIDDLE LOWER
Having 3 lobes gives it 2 fissures, what are they?
-OBLIQUE -A HORIZONTAL
Since left lungs only have 2 lobes, it only had 1 fissure. What is it called?
HORIZONTAL
______ of the lung is the ______, while the ________ is the _____ of the lung.
APEX, TOP BASE, BOTTOM
What is the medial part of the lungs where bronchi and blood vessels enter and leave?
HILUS
What does the Broncheal trees do?
The bronchi DIVIDES 25 times
Name the divisions that the broncheal tree as followed in order.
PRIMARY BRONCHI--> SECONDARY BRONCHI--> TERTIARY BRONCHI --> BRONCHIOLES --> TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES
Terminal bronchioles become ___________ bronchioles deep in the tissue of ________.
RESPIRATORY LOBULE
The respiratory bronchioles are divided into what?
SMALLER ALVEOLAR DUCTS
What is off the alveolar ducts?
ALVEOLI
What is given off around the entire circumference of the alveolar ducts?
ALVEOLI
Alveoli is where ______ exchange occurs.
GAS
The alveoli are very thin walled acs surrounded by what?
BLOOD VESSELS
What are the 2 types of cells that make up the wall? And what it does?
-TYPE I ALVEOLAR CELLS- simple subsquamous cells ALLOW easy DIFFUSION of GASES -TYPE II ALVEOLAR CELLS-(SEPTAL CELLS) it SECRETE a FLUID called SURFACTANT to LOWER the surface tension inside the alveolus
What does the Surfactant help in the type II alveolar cells?
It helps the tiny alveoli STAY OPEN
What helps the invaders from getting into the body?
ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES - also known as DUST CELLS in the alveoli
Define total lung capacity.
ENTIRE volume of lung
Define Residual Volume.
volume that is NOT VOLUNTARILY MOVED
Define Vital capacity.
Volume of AIR that CAN BE MOVED
What is the equation for VC?
VC= TLC - RV
Define Inspiratory Reserve.
CAN move this AIR, BUT USUALLY DON'T!
Define Tidal Volume.
NORMAL VENTILATION
Define Expiratory Reserve.
CAN move this AIR, BUT USUALLY DON'T
What is the equation for Ventilation?
Ventilation= VOL of EACH BREATH x BREATHS/MIN
Define respiratory physiology.
Diffusion of GASES along their CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS
Lung alveoli have ___________ and __________ than the blood passing by in the Capillary does.
MORE O2 LESS CO2
What happens when the lung alveoli get more O2 and less CO2?
The OXYGEN will MOVE into the BLOOD & CO2 MOVES into the ALVEOLI
What happens when tissue capillary blood has more O2 than the Interstitual fluid?
O2 will MOVE into the FLUID
Oxygen the enters the blood is picked up by what?
HEMOGLOBIN
____ml high oxygenated arterial blood has ___ ml of Oxygen
100 20
____ml of oxygen is on hmoglobin.
19.7
How many ml of oxygen is dissolved in the blood?
0.3- (Cells don't care bout this because so little)
What is the normal PaO2 in room air (20% atm)?
100 mm Hg in 20% atm room air
What is a Knee shape curve?
HEMOGLOBIN DISASSOCIATION CURVE(HDC)
Why does hemoglobin has the ability to change its shape?
So that it will HOLD LESS or MORE O2
What does right shift in the HDC do?
It CAUSES the HEMOGLOBIN to carry LESS O2, thereby RELEASING O2
What does left shift in HDC do?
It causes the hemoglobin to CARRY MORE O2, thereby PICKING up O2
What are the byproducts of metabolism that makes the hemoglobin right shit and release oxygen?
HEAT ACID CO2 2,3,DGP
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