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aerodigestive tract
throat
apnea
cessation of breathing
carina
the inferior tracheal cartilage that projects from the tracheal cartilage and bifurcates into the two primary bronchi
cholesteatoma
a mass composed of cholesterol and epithelial cells that is either congenital or occurs as a complication of chronic otitis media; located in the middle ear
chondroradionecrosis
(CRN) rare but fatal complication of radiotherapy
dynamic equilibrium
the ability of the individual to adjust to displacements of the center of gravity of the body
epiglottis
the small cartilaginous structure that acts like a lid and closes the passageway to the larynx to prevent food from entering the larynx and trachea during the act of swallowing
epistaxis
nosebleed
Gelfoam
type of absorbable gelatin hemostatic agent that is made from purified pork skin gelatin; available in either pad or powder form, it is placed over an area of bleeding to control hemorrhage
glottis
the small opening between the true vocal cords
hydrops
abnormal accumulation of clear watery fluid in the tissue or a body cavity such as the middle ear; formerly called dropsy
hypertrophy
enlargement or overgrowth of a structure due to an increase in the size of its cells
laryngo-
larynx
myringo-
tympanic membrane
olfaction
sense of smell
oropharynx
pertaining to the oral cavity and pharynx
oto-
ear
pharyngotympanic tube
an open tube that links the middle ear to the nasopharynx; it releases pressure pushing against the tympanic membrane and allows the membrane to vibrate
polyp
growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane; often precancerous
polysomnography
diagnostic test during which physiological variables are measured and recorded during sleep; often administered to individuals who suffer from some type of sleep disorder
rhino-
nose
-sclerosis
hardening of a structure or tissue due to a pathological occurence
SMR
submucous resection aka septoplasty
a surgical procedure to restore normal breathing; involves incising the mucous membrane lining of the nasal cavity, lifting the underlying perichondrium, removing underlying mucous membrane structures, and placing the mucous membrane back into place
T&A
surgical removal of the tonsils and adenoids
UPPP
uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
surgical procedure to treat intractable snoring and obstructive sleep apnea; involves removal of the redundant tissue of the fauces, tonsils, and a portion of the soft palate, including the uvula
leaf-like structure that protects the opening to the larynx
epiglottis
only bone in the body that does not articulate with another
hyoid bone
smaller pyramid shaped, laterally attached to the epiglottis
cuneiform cartilage
larger pyramid shaped, more medial cartilage
corniculate cartilage
base of epiglottis is attached inferiorly to this area
laryngeal prominence
the only complete cartilage located at the base of the larynx
arytenoid cartilage
extends from the larynx to the bronchus with c-shaped hyaline cartilage
trachea
two functions of the nose
olfactory
warms and filters air
which bone houses the mastoid sinus
temporal bone
name the 3 sections of the pharynx
nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
which of the tonsils are moved during a tonsillectomy
palatine tonsils
name the 4 pairs of paranasal sinuses
frontal
ethmoid
sphenoid
maxillary
where is the frontal sinus located
within the frontal bone behind the eyebrows and may be one cavity or divided
where is the ethmoid sinus located
there are 10-15
located between the eyes and have a honeycomb appearance
where is the sphenoid sinus located
located directly behind the nose at the center of the skull and may be one cavity or divided
where is the maxillary sinus located
located below the eyes and lateral to the nasal cavity
what are the scientific and common names for the ossicles in their proper sequence, moving from lateral to medial
malleus (hammer)
incus (anvil)
stapes (stirrup)
what are the nasal conchae and what is their function
osseus ridges on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
increase surface area of the cavity to warm, moisten, and filter air
what is the main source of arterial blood to the nose, and from which vessel is it derived
internal maxially artery, external carotid
where are the adenoids located
posterior wall of the nasopharynx
can tonsillitis affect the palatine tonsils
yes
which nerve is affected in a patient with sensorineural deafness
acoustic (vestibulocochlear--8th cranial) nerve
what is the cause of hypertrophied turbinates
chronic rhinitis
what is the cause of obstructive sleep apnea
problem with upper respiratory tract prevents movement of air through the nose or mouth even when respiratory effort is attempted
what is the most common cause of otitis media
blockage of the eustachian tube causing an accumulation of fluid
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