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gout (gouty arthritis, tophi)
A metaboli disease resulting resulting from an accumulation of uric acid in the blood. onset is usually in the big toe with excruciating pain, edema, and inflammation in the affected joint.
alopecia
hair loss
5 basic functions of the skeletal system
support - skeleton is the bodys framework that supports internal tissues and organs protection - cranium protects the brain, vertebrae protects the spinal cord, ribs and sternum protect the lungs and heart, pelvis protects the digestive and repro system movement - skeletal muscles are attatched to the bones mineral storage - calcium and phosphorus hematopoiesis - blood cell formation takes place in the red bone marrow
2 divisions of the skeleton
Axial (skull, spine, thorax) Appendicular (upper extremities - shoulder girdle, arms, wrist, hands; lower extremities - hip girdle, legs, ankles, feet)
3 vital functions muscles perform when they contract
motion ( synthrosis- no movement, amphiarthrosis- slight movement , diarthrosisl free movement ) maintenance of posture and production of heat
Diagnostic exam for musculoskeletal function
x-ray - to determine skeletal fracture Laminography/ planography/ body section roentgenography scanography- produces a radiograph of internal organs myelogram- involves radiation opaque dye to x ray the spinal cord (herniated disk/spinal tumors) nuclear scanning- more detailed xray MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- used for brain CT (computed tomography) 3d pics of structure being studied Bone scan- for metastatic and inflammatory bone disease (osteomyelitis) Aspiration - done to obtain specimen of body fluid Arthtrocentesis- aspiration of synovial fluid to diagnose trauma, sle, gout, osteoarthritis, and RA Endoscopic exam- lighted tube used to visualize inside a body cavity Arthroscopy - direct visualization of joint
RA
sustemic autoimmune disorder that is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane; destruction of bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, and joint capsule. diagnostic tests: esr, rheumatoid factor
OA Osteoarthritis
Degenerative, nonsystemic, noninflammatory disorder that progressively causes degeneration of cartilage from wear and tear; bone spur formation. Diagnostic test: x ray
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