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gout (gouty arthritis, tophi)
A metaboli disease resulting resulting from an accumulation of uric acid in the blood. onset is usually in the big toe with excruciating pain, edema, and inflammation in the affected joint.
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5 basic functions of the skeletal system
support - skeleton is the bodys framework that supports internal tissues and organs protection - cranium protects the brain, vertebrae protects the spinal cord, ribs and sternum protect the lungs and heart, pelvis protects the digestive and repro system movement - skeletal muscles are attatched to the bones mineral storage - calcium and phosphorus hematopoiesis - blood cell formation takes place in the red bone marrow
2 divisions of the skeleton
Axial (skull, spine, thorax) Appendicular (upper extremities - shoulder girdle, arms, wrist, hands; lower extremities - hip girdle, legs, ankles, feet)
3 vital functions muscles perform when they contract
motion ( synthrosis- no movement, amphiarthrosis- slight movement , diarthrosisl free movement ) maintenance of posture and production of heat
Diagnostic exam for musculoskeletal function
x-ray - to determine skeletal fracture Laminography/ planography/ body section roentgenography scanography- produces a radiograph of internal organs myelogram- involves radiation opaque dye to x ray the spinal cord (herniated disk/spinal tumors) nuclear scanning- more detailed xray MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- used for brain CT (computed tomography) 3d pics of structure being studied Bone scan- for metastatic and inflammatory bone disease (osteomyelitis) Aspiration - done to obtain specimen of body fluid Arthtrocentesis- aspiration of synovial fluid to diagnose trauma, sle, gout, osteoarthritis, and RA Endoscopic exam- lighted tube used to visualize inside a body cavity Arthroscopy - direct visualization of joint
sustemic autoimmune disorder that is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane; destruction of bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, and joint capsule. diagnostic tests: esr, rheumatoid factor
OA Osteoarthritis
Degenerative, nonsystemic, noninflammatory disorder that progressively causes degeneration of cartilage from wear and tear; bone spur formation. Diagnostic test: x ray
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