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Great Famine
\\\"Famine that affected northern Europe between 1315 and 1322. this would weaken the immune systems of a vast majority of Europeans
Black Death
massive outbreak of bubonic plague that swept all of Europe in the 1340¬タルs and 1350¬タルs. The first estimated the black plague wiped out a third of the population of European its many visits. This event would help push Europe out of the middle ages into th
Buba
\\\"the initial sign that the bubonic plague is present in a victim. This was a boil that was built-up pus that appeared in the neck
Flagellants
\\\"a radical group of monks formed during the time of the black plague. They believed the plague was an act of God to punish humanity for their sins. To remedy this dilemma
Crecy
\\\"battle during the Hundred Year¬タルs War. Fought in 1346 in northern France
Agincourt
battle fought during the Hundred Year¬タルs War. Fought in 1415 near the city of Arras. In this battle Henry V of England scored a huge victory over French forces and would pave the way for the English to besiege the city of Paris by 1419.
Joan of Arc
French peasant who is credited with being the driving force behind the ultimate French victory in the Hundred Year¬タルs war. She went to the French court in 1428 and convinced the dauphin to claim his right to the throne. In 1429 she traveled with the Frenc
Representation
\\\"the ability of one or more selected people to represent a group¬タルs interests in a council or assembly. Between 1250 and 1450
Nationalism
\\\"a feeling of unity and identity that binds a people together. During the Hundred Year¬タルs war
Babylonian Captivity
the period of time (1309-1376) that the seat of power in the Catholic Church was moved from Rome to Avignon. The French king Phillip the Fair pressured the dying Pope Clement V to do this so he could control the church. This greatly damaged the church\\\'s
Schism
\\\"the division of something. The name Great Schism was given to the time when the legally elected
Conciliarists
\\\"believed that reform of the Catholic Church could best be achieved through periodic assemblies
Merchet
when peasants decided to get married the couple¬タルs parents would have to pay this fine to the lord for the women¬タルs marriage-since he was going to lose a worker.
Banns
these are public announcements that a couple are planning to get wed. These were usually published on three successive Sundays before the wedding. This would allow for objections to the union.
Jacquerie
\\\"French peasant revolt
Racism
\\\"in Latin Europe
Dalimil Chronicle
this was a survey of Bohemian history pervaded with Czech hostility toward Germans.
Statute of Kilkeny (1366)
an attempt in Ireland to prevent intermarriage and protect the racial purity of English settlers.
Renaissance
cultural achievements of the 14th through 16th centuries; those achievements rest on the economic and political developments of earlier centuries.
Communes
sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles. Examples would be the Northern Italian cities.
popolo
disenfranchised people in Italian communes who resented their exclusion from power.
signori
\\\"government by despot
oligarchies
\\\"governments by the merchant aristocracy in Italian cities
republic
non-monarchical government in which political power theoretically resides in the people and is exercised by its chosen representatives.
princely courts
\\\"the place or space where despots or oligarchs lived
individualism
\\\"another basic feature of the Italian renaissance stressing personality
humanism
\\\"term first used by Florentine rhetorician Leonard Bruni as a general word for \\\'the new learning\\\' the critical study of Latin and Greek literature
secularism
\\\"attitude that tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beings in what reason and the senses can discover
The Prince (1513)
\\\"treatise by Machiavelli on ways to gain
gabelle; taille
French tax on salt; French tax on land.
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438)
statement of French king Charles VII asserting royal control over church appointments and the superiority of a general council over the papacy.
royal council
the body of men who happened to be with the king at a given time and usually including his chief officials; renaissance princes tended to prefer middle class councilors to noble ones.
court of Star Chamber
\\\"a division of the English royal council
justices of the peace
English local officials in the shires appointed by the crown and given wide authority in local government.
hermandades
popular groups in Spanish towns given royal authority to serve as local police forces and as judicial tribunals with the goal of reducing aristocratic violence.
New Christians
\\\"term applied to Jews who accepted Christianity but since many had become Christian centuries earlier
pluralism
clerical practice of holding more than one church benefice (or office) at the same time and enjoying the income from each.
The Imitation of Christ
\\\"spiritual classic authored by Thomas a Kempis (c. 1380-1471) urging Christ as the model of Christian life and simplicity in living; widely read by laypeople
ecumenical council
\\\"church assembly theoretically representing all catholic countries and peoples
indulgence
\\\"papal statement (in document addressed to an individual) granting remission of priest-imposed penalty for sin (no one knew what penalty God would impose after death). Popular belief
Diet of worms
\\\"series of imperial meetings (1521) at the bishop¬タルs palace at Worms in the Rhineland where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V. On 18 April Luther declared his final refusal to recant those doctrines
Protestant
\\\"at the Diet of Speyer (1529) princes who favored church reforms along Lutheran lines protested decisions of the Catholic princes; hence
transubstantiation
\\\"Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist (ch. 10): that when the bread and wine (the elements) are consecrated by the priest at Mass
consubstantiation
\\\"Lutheran doctrine of the Eucharist: after consecration
Lord¬タルs Supper
\\\"Eucharistic doctrine espoused by Swiss reformer Zwingli whereby the Eucharist is a memorial of the Last Supper
preacherships
\\\"offices
German peasant revolts (1525)
\\\"widespread uprising of German country people protesting economic and social injustices
The Institutes of the Christian Religion (definitive edition 1559)
\\\"Calvin¬タルs formulation of Christian doctrine
predestination
\\\"Calvin¬タルs teaching (based on his interpretation of Romans 8: 28-30
Anabaptists
general name given to several Protestant groups who believed that only adults could make an informed decision about baptism (and thus entry into the Christian community) and who therefore refused to have their children baptized. Because of their belief in
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