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Normal Blood Flow through the Heart
Superior/Inferior Vena Cava > Right Atrium > Tricuspid Valve > Right Ventricle > Pulmonary Artery > Lungs >Pulmonary Vein > Left Atrium > Mitral Valve > Left Ventricle > Aortic Valve > Aorta > Rest of Body
Which side of the heart pumps unoxygenated blood?
Which side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood?
2 Sets of Heart Valves

  • Atrioventricular (AV) Valves

  • Ventricular (Semilunar) Valves

Which 2 Valves are AV Valves?

  • Mitral Valve

  • Tricuspid Valve

Which 2 Valves are Semilunar/Ventricular Valves?

  • Aortic Valve

  • Pulmonary Valve

What is the only artery to carry UNoxygenated blood?
Pulmonary Artery
5 Major Vessels that Supply the Heart

  • Superior Vena Cava

  • Inferior Vena Cava

  • Pulmonary Artery

  • Pulmonary Vein

  • Aorta

5 Main Coronary Arteries

  • Left Main (LM)

  • Left Anterior Descending (LAD)

  • Right Coronary Artery (RCA)

  • Right Posterior Descending (PDA)

  • Circumflex (Circ)

The Main Coronary Arteries Originate from Where?
Coronary artery that branches into the left anterior descending and circumflex artery
Left Main (located on the FRONT)
Coronary artery that travels down the anterior portion of the septal groove between the right and left ventricles and branches several more times to supply blood to the anterior portion of the septum and the anterior muscle mass of the left ventricle
Left Anterior Descending (located on the FRONT)
Travels in the area between the left atrium and ventricle, on the posterior surface, and supplies blood to the lateral wall of the left ventrical
Left Circumflex (located on the BACK)
Travels in the groove between the right atrium and ventricle and branches off to supply blood to the posterior portions of the heart (including posterior interventricular septum)
Right Coronary Artery (located on the FRONT)
Located on the posterior right ventrical, this artery eventually branches from the right coronary artery
Right Posterior Descending Artery (located on the BACK)
What 2 coronary arteries are located on the posterior of the heart?

  • Left Circumflex

  • Right Posterior Descending

When does blood fill the coronary arteries?
_____ reduces diastolic time and decreases coronary blood flow.
Faster Heart Rate
3 receptors stimulation affects (there are 4, but we are only concerned with these 3 for this section)

  • B1

  • B2

  • A1

Stimulation of B1 affects what 3 things?

  • HR

  • Conduction

  • Force of Contractions

Stimulation of B2 affects what 1 thing?
Stimulation of A1 affects what 3 things?

  • Vasoconstriction

  • Decreases Vessel Diameter

  • Increased BP

Name the effected receptor (B1, B2, or A1)

Name the effected receptor (B1, B2, or A1)

Name the effected receptor (B1, B2, or A1)

Force of Contractions
Name the effected receptor (B1, B2, or A1)

Decreased Vessel Diameter
Name the effected receptor (B1, B2, or A1)

Heart Rate
Name the effected receptor (B1, B2, or A1)

Name the effected receptor (B1, B2, or A1)

Increased BP
Cardiac myocytes contract based on what 3 electrolytes?

  • Na+

  • Ca++

  • K+

During cardiac contraction, which electrolytes INFLUX?

  • Na+

  • Ca++

During cardiac contraction, which electrolyte EFFLUXES?
Where are the SA nodes located?
Top of RA
Where are the AV nodes located?
Bottom of RA
Under normal conditions, is the HR controlled by PSNS or SNS?
What is the normal CO?
5-6 L/min
What is the normal ejection fraction?
What is the formula for CO?
CO = HR x SV
Normally, pressure is higher in which side of the heart?
Which risk factors can be changed by the patient?
Which risk factors can't be changed by the patient?
3 Systems that Transport Blood

  • Capillaries

  • Arteries

  • Veins

3 Layers of Arteries/Veins

  • Tunica Intima

  • Tunica Media

  • Tunica Adventitia

Do veins or arteries have a larger tunica media and why?

  • Arteries

  • Arteries are more "elastic" than veins, so the muscular portion is larger

Middle Layer of Veins/Arteries and Composition

  • Tunica Media

  • Muscular Cells

Outermost Layer of Veins/Arteries and Composition

  • Tunica Aventitia

  • Connective Tissue

Innermost Layer of Veins/Arteries and Composition

  • Tunica Intima

  • Endothelial Cells

Blood vessels that carry nutrients, gases, wastes
Blood vessels that vary lumen diameter
Blood vessels that are capacitance vessels
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