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Father of antisepsis used carbolic acid as a disinfectant
Gas gangrene
Clostridium perfringens
G- Diplococci LPS on cell wall acts as endotoxin Polysaccharide capsule prevents host phagocytosis Uses fimbrae to attach onto host cell surface with adhesin protein N gonorrhoea responsible for gonnorhea N meningitidis common cause of bacterial meningitis
G+ Bacillus anthracis Makes endospores (genera bacillus and clostridium only) Causes black blood and sudden death
infections a common bacteria causes
Streptococcus G+ Produce toxins that contribute to pathogenesis S mutans has slime layer that allows it to attach to tooth enamel Puerperal fever Strep throat Scarlet fever Streptococcal pneumonia Necrotizing fasciitis
Causes bubonic plague
G- bacilli Yersenia pestis
Causes smallpox
Variola major and minor virus
RNA virus orthomyoxviridae
Robert Koch
Experimented with media, petri dishes Postulates (identify causative agent of disease): isolate from sick, identify, introduce into healthy, if sickens isolate and identify again. Now done in cell culture
G+ Has slime later that allows it to thrive in the salty hypertonic envionment of the skin
Van Leuwenhoek
Invented the microscope Saw microorganisms
Francesco Redi
Spontaneous generation debate Meat in jars experiment Covered jars = no flies
John Needham
Spontaneous generation debate Boiled broth with flasks uncovered Life reemerged due to spontaneous generation
Edward Jenner
Father of vaccination Inoculated people with cowpox to prevent smallpox
Discovered the dye prontosil was an effective antimicrobial agent. sulfanilamide and sulfa drug
Discovered that bacteria exist in 2 forms: endospore (heat stable) and vegetative (killed by heat). Tyndallization - prolonged or intermittent heating to destroy endospores
3 methods of getting rid of microorganisms:
1. heat
2. Filtering
3. Chemicals

Used attenuated vaccines to inoculate Did the broth boiling experiment using swan necked flasks (broke one and left one intact)
John Snow
Mapped occurrence of cholera cases during an epidemic in london and found that cases centered around a specific water supply Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae G-
Believed death following childbirth (puerperal fever) often caused by the material on hands of midwives or physicians
Florence Nightingale
Nurse Kept records of cleanliness Death rate dropped when instruments were cleaned
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Spontaneous generation debate Heated covered flasks Heat killed the microbes, and since the flasks were sealed, microbes did not reappear
Discovered penicillin, the first antibiotic
G+ Obligate anaerobes Can produce endospores C. botulinum - botulism (neurotoxin production) C. tetani - tetanus C. perfringes - gas gangrene
Noticed that death rates were higher in maternity wards staffed by medical students than those attended by midwives and that death rates dropped during the summer
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