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Division of Labor
economic specialization is the specialization of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase the productivity of labour.
Departmentalization
- The dividing of organizantional functions into separate units.
Max Weber and Organizational Theory - Organizantional structure composed of of middle managers who implement the orders of top managers.
- Organizantional structure composed of of middle managers who implement the orders of top managers.
Tall Organizational Structure - An organizational structure in which the pyramidal organization chart would be quite tall because of the various levels of management.
- An organizational structure in which the pyramidal organization chart would be quite tall because of the various levels of management.
Flat Organizational Structure
- An organization structure that has few layers of management and a broad span of control.  
Span Of Control
- The optimal number of subordinates a manager supervises or should supervise.
Centralized authority
- An organization structure in which decision-making authority is maintained at the top level of management.
Line organizations
-Employees who are part of the chain of command that is responsible for achieving organizational goals.
Staff organizations
-Employees who advise and assist line personnel in meeting their goals.
Matrix organization
-which specialists from different parts of the organization work together temporarily on a specific projects,but still remain part of a line-and-staff structure.  
Operations management
- A specialized area in managament that converts or transforms resources ( including human resources) into goods and services.
Production managament
- The term used to describe all the activities managers do to help their firms create goods.
Form utility
- The value producers add to materials in the creation of finished goods and services.
Intermittent process
- A production process in which the production run is short and the machines are changed frequently to make different products.
Lean manufacturing
- The production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production.
Flexible manufacturing
- Designing machines to da multiple tasks so that hey can produce a variety of products.
Just-in-time (JIT) inventory control
- A production process in which a minimum of inventory is kept on the premises and parts,supplies,and other needs are delivered just in time to go on the assembly line.
The Baldrige Awards
-is an annual award that recognizes U.S. organizations in the business, health care, education, and nonprofit sectors for performance excellence
ISO 9000
- The common name given to quality management and assurance standards.
Six Sigma
- seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.
(PERT) program evaluation and review technique
-A method for analyzing the tasks involved in completing a given project, estimating the time needed to complete each task, and identifying the mininmum time needed to complete the total project.
Intrinsic reward
- The personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well and complete goals.
Extrinsic reward
- Something given to you by someone else as recognition for good work ( pay increases,praise,and promotions.
Hawthorne effect
- The tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
- Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety,social, and esteem needs to self-actualization needs.  
Herzberg's Motivating factors:
Motivators and hygiene factors
Motivators
motivating factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction.
Hygiene Factors
motivating factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not nessarily motivate employees if increased .
Theory X
-In this theory, which has been proven counter- effective in most modern practice, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. As a result of this, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed.
Theory Y
In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties.
Goal Setting Theory
The idea that setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted,accompanied by feedback, and facilitated by organizatinal conditions.
Managament By Objectives (MBO)
- A system of goal setting and implementation; it involves a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers, supervisors, and employees.  
Expectancy theory
- The amount of effort emplyees exert on a specific task depends in their expectations of the outcome.
Job enrichment
- A motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself.
Job rotation
- A job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
-was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public
Reverse Discrimination
- Discrimination against whites or males in hiring or promoting,
ADA (The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990)
- Requires employers to give applicants with physical or mental disabilities the same consideration for employment as people without disabilities.
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA)
- Protects individuals 40 or older from employment and workplace discrimination in hiring, firing, promotion, layoff, compensation, benefits , job assignments, and training.
Family Medical Leave Law
- is a labor law requiring larger employers to provide employees job-protected unpaid leave due to a serious health condition that makes the employee unable to perform his or her job, or to care for a sick family member, or to care for a new child (including by birth, adoption or foster care).
Job analysis
- A study of what employees do who hold variouse job titles.
Job description
- A summary of the objectives of a job, the type of work to be done, the responsibilities and duties, the working conditions, and the relationship of the job to other functions.
Job specifications
- A written summary of the minimum qualifications required of workers to do a particular job.  
Internal recruit
- Include current employees who can be transferred or promoted or who can recommend others to hire.
External recruit
- Such as advertisements, public and private employment agencies, college placement bureaus.
Orientation program
- The activity that introduces new employees to the organization; to fellow employees; to their immediate suoervisors; and to the polices, practices, and objectives of the firm,
Fringe benefits
- Benefits such as sick-leave pay, vacation pay, pension plans, and health plans that represent additional compensation beyond base wages.
Cafeteria - style fringe benefits
- Fringe benefits plan that allows employees to choose the benefits they want up to a certain dollar amount.
Stock option plan
- Right to purchase stock in the company at a specific price over a specific period.
Certification
-Formal process whereby union and managament representatives form a labor-management agreement, or contract, for workers.
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