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CT images
-white matter
-grey matter
-moderately radioluscent/grey
-highly radioluscent/black
T1 weighted images
-white matter
-grey matter
-high signal intensity / white
-moderate signal intensity / grey
-low signal intensity / black
T2 weight images
-white matter
-grey matter
-low signal intensity / black
-moderate signal intensity / grey
-high signal intensity / white
Edema appears on
-T1 images
-T2 images
-hypointense area (black)
-hyperintense area (white)
Hemorrhage appears as
-T1/T2 (different stages)
-Fresh stage : not detected
-Early stage (hours) : b/c of deoxyhemoglobin - hypointense (blck)
-Subacute stage (days) : b/c methemoglobin - hyperintense (white)
-Chronic stage (months) : b/c hemosiderin - hypointense (black)
-Hyperdense CT (white)
Astrocytoma appears as
-hypodense / blk
-hypointense / blck
-hyperintense / white
Classification by myelination, diameter, firing velocity
-A beta
-A delta
-C fibers
-myelinated and medium diameter, medium velocity
-myelinated, small diameter, medium velocity
-unmyelinated, small diamter, slow velocity
Pacinian Corpuscles
-fiber type
-very rapid
-A beta fibers
-Deep pressure, high frequency vibration, tapping
Meissner's Corpuscle
-fiber type
-unique charasteristic
-very rapid
-A beta fibers
-Low frequency vibration, tapping, flutter
-Encapsulated in Schwann cells
Ruffini's corpuscles
-Fiber type
-A beta fibers
-Stretching of skin and joint rotation
Merkel's receptors and tactile discs
-Fiber type
-A beta fibers
-Touch, pressure, vertical indentation of skin
Thermoreceptors (range, fiber type)
-unmyelinated C fibers
-myelinated A delta fibers
-unmyelinated C fibers
-myelinated A delta fibers
Dorsal White Column Medial Lemniscus System
-Location of Decussation
-Location of first order cell bodies
-Location of second order cell bodies
-proprioception, tactile localization, multiple touch, object identification
-at the level of the low medulla after the cuneate and gracili nuclei
-Dorsal root ganglion
-Cuneate and Gracili nuclei
Anterolateral System
-Location of Decussation
-Location of First order cell bodies
-pain, temperature, itch sensation
-at the level of innervation through the anterior white commissure
-Dorsal root ganglion
Cushing reaction
List changes in
-intracranial pressure
-peripheral resistance
-mean blood pressure
-heart rate
-the reaction the body has to increased interstitial pressure
-increased intracranial pressure
-increased peripheral resistance
-increased mean blood pressure
-decreased heart rate
The Blood Brain Barrier
-types of junctions
-types of transport
-describe p glycoprotein
-tight junctions between endothelial cells made of JAMS, claudins and occludins
-Adherence junctions made of PCAMS and VE-cadherin
-Vesicular transport (limited)
-P glycoprotein restricts the movement of material across the BBB; falls within the class of proteins called ATP-Binding Cassette Proteins (ABC proteins); Works in conjunction with cellular pumps
Accessory Cells of the BBB (function)
-contribute to the integrity of the BBB, supports neurons, and phagocytosis unwanted materials ; guide the migration of neurons, provides neurons with glutamine; contains GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)
-sit along the BL of the BBB, can be contractile and control the movement of fluid thorugh the cappillary; antigen presentation
Sympathetic response to changins in Mean arterial blood pressure
-high blood pressure
-followed by an acute drop in blood pressure
-results in symp stimulation that vasoconstricts blood vessels as a protection mechanism against raised pressures
-vessels that are maximally constricted will have no response
Trigeminal Nerve pathway
-pain, itch, temperature
-Proprioception, discriminitive touch
-pain, temperature, itch sensing nerves course from the trigeminal ganglion to the spinal nucleus ; these primary neurons synapse to secondary neurons in the spinal tract ; the secondary neurons cross to the contralateral side then course to the Ventral posterior medial nucleus of the Thalamus (VPM) ; At the VPM the secondary neurons synapse to the tertiary neurons
-proprioception, multitouch, touch localization, ect sensing nerves course from the trig. ganglion to the main sensory nucleus in the pons ; these primary neurons synapse to secondary neurons in the main sensory nucleus ; the secondary neurons remain ispilateral in their path and course to the VPM to synapse with tertiary neurons
Taste pathway
-the rostral end of the SOLITARY NUCLEUS found in the MEDULLA contains the cell bodies of the secondary nuclei that synapsed from primary neurons of CN7, CN9, CN10 ; Secondary neurons for taste course from the solitary nucleus to the VPM then as tertiary neurons to the INSULA CORTEX and the INFERIOR PART OF THE FRONTAL LOBE that border the lateral sulcus.
Zonula fibers
-structures they connect
-action when tensed
-action when relaxed
-ciliary muscle and the lens
-when the ciliary muscle is CONTRACTED there is less tension on the zonula fibers and the lens' diameter enlarges for NEAR VISION
-when the ciliary muscle is RELAXED there is more tension on the zonula fibers and the lens' diameter shrinks for FAR VISION
Blood supply to the eye
-Name of vessels : what they supply
-Central rental artery is a tributary of the opthalmic artery : it supplies the inner two thirds (axons to outer nuclear layers)
-Choricoid artery : supplies the outer third of the eye including the rods and cones (rods/cones and pigment layers)
Light as it passes through the layers of the retina
-name the layers
-axons of the optic nerve
-P and M ganglion
-inner plexiform
-inner nuclear (bipolar cells)
-outter plexiform
-outer nuclear
-rods and cones
-pigment cell layer
Function, light sensitive protein
-Pigment cells
>Cones have the greater discriminitive vision, color vision, "what pathway"
-project very discretely onto ganglion
>Rods have the ability to detect where an object is in space and where it is moving
-project in large convergence onto ganglion
>Pigment cells are responsible for maintenance of the eye
-can phagocytos disks, lysosomes within digest disks
-pigement prevents the scattering of light
Vitreous humor production
-structure involved
-pathway of flow
-ciliary processes
-fluid flows from the posterior chambers to the anterior chambers and then escapes through the canal of Schlemm.
Cortices involved in vision
-name, function, primary cell type
-Inferior temporal cortex : important for comprehension of form and color, P cells
-Posterior parietal cortex: important for detection of motion and location, M cells
-Occiptal Lobe : cuneus is responsible for lower visual quadrants, lingula is responsible for upper visual quadrants
Pupillary Reflex
-motor limb
-Sensory limb
-Pupillary Dilator muscle is controlled by the sympathetics ( in the opthalmic)
-Pupillary Constrictor muscle is controlled by the parasympathetics (in the oculomotor)
-Optic nerve is sensory for PAIN
Divisions of the Optic Radiations
-name and course
-Retrolenticular - fibers found posterior to the lenticular nucleus coursing to the cuneus gyrus through the parietal lobe
-Sublenticular - fibers found inferior to the lenticular nucleus coursing to the lingula gyrus through the temporal lobe
Name the component of CN 3 that supplies the pupillary reflex
>Edinger-westphal component of 3 is the parasymp pregang.
Lower motor neurons
-name, innervating target, function
-Alpha motor neuron : innervates the extrafusal muscle fibers that produce the force of muscle contraction
-Gamma motor neuron : innervate the intrafusal muscles fibers of the neuromuscular spindle. Make no substantial contribution to the force of muscle contraction rather influence the muscle spindle
Reflexes of Musclar Origin
(fiber type, components)
-Reflex of Intrafusal Fibers
-Reflex of Golgi Tendon
-intrafusal muscle fibers and the 1a circuit
1. nuclear bag fibers : have contacts on extrafusal muscle fibers
-most of the deformation occurs at the level of the 1a fibers due to their construction of just cytoplasm and nuclei
2. nuclear chain fibers : have contacts on the nuclear bag fibers
3. serves to supply deep tendon reflex and general muscle tone ; informs the cortex of the STATIC length (muscle tone) as well as the DYNAMIC length (deep tendon reflex); supplies cortex with proprioceptive information
-golgi tendon organ and the 1b circuit
1. tension on the tendon provide stimulus
2. GTO project stimulus to INTERNEURONS that feed to descending pathways to EFMF
3. can be used to relieve cramped muscle
Contraction of Extrafusal Muscle Fibers
>CONTRACTION of EFMF's tend to silence IFMF's
-gammaMN's are coactivated with EFMF contraction permitting the tonic loading of IFMF's
-this permits the body to maintain PROPRIOCEPTION information from the IFMF's that would be silenced WITHOUT coactivation of gamma MN's
Descending Pathways Projecting to Spinal Cord ORIGINATING from the brainstem ; Mostly functioning to regulate postural and muscle tone
-indicate which have a decussation
-medial reticulospinal
-lateral reticulospinal
-tectospinal (decussates at the level of the midbrain)
-nuclei innervated
-indicate which have ipsilatera
-indicate which have contralateral innervation
-indicate which are bilaterally innervated
-CN5 trigeminal motor (bilateral)
-CN7 Facial
upper (bilateral)
lower (contralateral)
-CN 9 Glossopharyngeal,10 Vagus as part of the Amibiguous (bilateral)
-CN 11 Spinal Accessory
SCM (Ipsilateral)
Trapezius (Contralateral)
-CN 12 Hypoglossal (contralateral)
A lesion of the left Corticobulbars would cause what symptoms?
-Weakness of right lower face
-Deviation of the tongue to the right
-Weakness in turning head to the right (left sternocleidomastoid)
-Weakness in shrugging the right shoulder (trapezius)
Course of the 7th motor nucleus fibers
-From the nucleus toward the midline
-around the abducens (CN VI) nuc through the MLF
-then back to the pons-medulla junction
What cortical area elicits affective qualities of pain?
Anterior Cingulate
Broca's Area Lesion
-Primary language Symptoms
-Other possible symptoms
-LEFT Inferior portion of the frontal gyrus
-difficulty with SYNTAX and grammar
-Non fluent aphasia
-Abnormal stretch reflexes in the upper right extremities (fx of lesion in primary motor cortex / posterior portion of the precentral gyrus)
-poor repetition
Wernicke's Area Lesion
-Primary language deficit
-inferior posterior parietal
-Fluent aphasia
-deficient in comprehension and content
-poor repetition
Arcuate Fasciculus Lesion
-Language Deficits
-Difficulty with repetition
-Conduction aphasia
Transcortical Aphasia
-area's immediately adjacent to the inferior frontal and inferior posterior parietal cortecies
-has all deficits of adjacent area, however repetition is intact
Basal Ganglia Functional Specializations
-Skeletal motor circuit : reinforces intended movement and suppresses unintended movements
-Cognitive circuit: reinforce attention and behavior to the task at hand and suppress distraction
-Limbic loop: reinforce behavior most rewarding and suppress behavior that is not
Glutamate Receptors
-Name, type, major permeant ion(s)
-NMDA, ionotrophic, Na, K, Ca
-AMPA, ionotrophic, Na, K
-Kainic Acid, ionotrophic, Na, K
-direction of movement
-Direction of movement
-moves cargo from cell body to the terminal.
-moves cargo from the terminal end to the cell body.
Locomotor Drive
-Mesencephalic Locomotor Region
Modulation of Locomotor Behavior
-primary system
-monoaminergic systems
Fine tuning and adaptation of Locomotor behavior
-primary system
-output fibers
-reticulospinals and vestibulospinals
Visuomotor coordination of locomotor behavior
-primary system
-output fibers
-visual and motor cortex
-primary system
-lateral dorsal premotor area
-posterior parietal lobe for detection of motion and location
-Primary system
-Lateral ventral premotor area
-inferior temporal cortex for comprehension of form and color
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