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a branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders
clinical psychology
a sample that fairly represents a population b/c each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
random sample
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
naturalistic observation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
correlation
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which in assumed to be an active agent.
placebo
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
control condition
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance.
random assignment.
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
hormones
"morphione within"--natural, opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to plasure.
endorphins
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
neurons
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
peripheral nervous system
the brain and spinal cord.
central nervous system.
neural "cables" containing many axons. these bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
nerves
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
motor neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
sensory neurons
interconnected neural cells, with experience networks can learn as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results.
neural networks
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
endocrine system
controls language reception--a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
wernicke's area
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment.
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect.
experimental condition
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite cell body of the receiving neuron.
synapse
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing weather that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
neurotransmitters
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
inter neurons
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. also called the skeletal nervous system.
somatic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
autonomic nervous system.
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
sympathetic nervous system
the bushy branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
dendrite
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions, rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
critical thinking
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
theory
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
hypothesis
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see weather the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
replication
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
case study
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviours of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
survey
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our belief and behaviors.
false consensus effect
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
population
controls language expression--an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
broca's area
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Aphasia
a need or desire that energizes and directs human behavior
motivation
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
industrial organizational psychology
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
independent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
dependent variable.
the most frequently occurring
mode
the arithmetic average of a distribution
mean
the middle score
median
the difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution.
range
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
standard deviation
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
statistical significance
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. for example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
operational definition
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