Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019



keywords:
Bookmark and Share



Front Back
eukaryotice, have cell walls, photosynthetic autotrophic nutrition, single- or multi-cellular, microscopic to many feet long, no specialized tissues,live only in water or damp places
algae
unicellular, phytoplankton=major source of aquatic food, cell walls are glass-produce diatomaceous earth
diatoms
major source of aquatic food
phytoplankton
2 organisms living in close association :a fungus, and alga; usually live where neither could live alone.
Lichens
another group of unicellular, microscopic algae; also important in food chains
dinoflagellates
caused by a dinoflagellate (single-celled). Toxin concentrated into shellfish.
Red tide
unicellular,eukaryotic, microscopic: largest barely visible without magnification; smallest in size range with bacteria, no cell walls, heterotrophic: parasitic or "freeliving" (nonparasitic), usually motile
Protozoa
move by pseudopodia (false feet):cytoplasmic streaming
Amoebas
phago means
eating
cyto means
cell
engulfing of solid particles by cells
phagocytosis
active, feeding form
trophozoite
cyst means
dormant, survival form
move by flagella (long whip-like structures for motility), called the flagellates
flagellate protozoa
T.brucei gambiense; infection in blood and lymph; vector: tsetse fly (pathogen in saliva)
African trypanosomiasis
T.cruzi, infection in blood and lymph; vector: Triatoma spp. (kissing bugs) (pathogen in feces)
American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)
pathogen in heart muscle (amastigote form: no flagella)
Chagas disease
trophozoite on left; cyst on right, most common intestinal protozoan in U.S; up to 2.5 million cases per year; low infectious dosage; high risk: children in day care, backpackers, travelers; diarrhea flatulence, weight loss, cramping, fatigue
Giardia spp. -G.lamblia -G. intestinalis,et.
intestinal infection
giardiasis
many parts of the world, human and animal reservoir, sandfly vector, cutaneous or visceral (systemic) (Kala Azar), Leishmaniasis
Lishmania donovoni
move by cilia (short, hair-like projections for motility)
ciliates
move by cilia, only one pathogen, balatidiasis= intestinal infection; only pathogenic ciliate
Balantidium coli
common freeliving ciliate
paramecium
intracellular parasites with complex life cycles; most stages are nonmotile
apicomplexa
parasites grow in our red blood cells
malarias
vectors: anopheles spp. mosquitos
Plasmodium vivax=malaria
toxoplasmosis= systemic infection; inhalation of dust from cat feces or eating undercooked meat, greatest importance during pregnancy- may cause fetal defects or death
Toxoplama gondii
live in cells lining intestine, diarrhea (10-14 days, cholera like), human and animal reservoirs (releases oocysts in the feces), fecal contamination of water system, chlorine resistant, even filtration sometimes fails, many outbreaks in U.S., severe in HIV-Infected people (>50% mortality)
Cryptosporidium parvum & other spp.
eucaryotic, no cell walls, heterotrophic nutrition, specialized tissues
Kingdom Animalia
flatworms, trematoda =flukes -leaf-shaped -parasitic -complex life cycles with several larval forms: larva = an immature form of an animal intermediate host: where the larva lives definitive host: where the adult worm lives
Platyhelminthes
an immature form of an animal; does not look like the adult
larva
where the larva lives
intermediate host
where the adult worm lives
definite host
having both ovaries and testes
hermaphroditic
blood flukes, male and female;portal of entry:skin,source of infection: larvae from fresh water snails; disease is not contracted in U.S.A. (we don't have host snail here). but more than 400,000 immigrants to this country have it; lives primarily in the pelvic veins
Schistosoma haematobium
tapeworm
cestoda
having both ovaries and testes (being both sexes at the same time)
hermaphroditic
have 2 host: intermediate host: infected by ingesting tapeworm eggs; contains larval cyst in skeletal muscle and other organs such as brain (infection is called cysticercosis; definite host: infected by ingesting larval cyst; adult tapeworm grows in intestine
Tapeworm
roundworms; plain, unsegmented worms ranging from microscopic up to about 12 in.
Aschelmenthes or Nematoda
the largest roundworms: up to 12 inches ascariasis= intestinal infection
Ascaris spp.
larval cysts in skeletal muscle
trichinosis
trichinosis; infection by ingesting larval cysts in undercooked pork or bear meat
Trichinella spiralis
worms in lymph vessel
filariasis
filariasis, microfilaria larva transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes, grow to adults 2-3 inches long, block flow of lymph, if untreated, after years of infestation, leads to elephantasis(swelling due to accumulation of fluid in tissues)
Wuchereria bancrofti
x of y cards Next >|