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eukaryotice, have cell walls, photosynthetic autotrophic nutrition, single- or multi-cellular, microscopic to many feet long, no specialized tissues,live only in water or damp places
unicellular, phytoplankton=major source of aquatic food, cell walls are glass-produce diatomaceous earth
major source of aquatic food
2 organisms living in close association :a fungus, and alga; usually live where neither could live alone.
another group of unicellular, microscopic algae; also important in food chains
caused by a dinoflagellate (single-celled). Toxin concentrated into shellfish.
Red tide
unicellular,eukaryotic, microscopic: largest barely visible without magnification; smallest in size range with bacteria, no cell walls, heterotrophic: parasitic or "freeliving" (nonparasitic), usually motile
move by pseudopodia (false feet):cytoplasmic streaming
phago means
cyto means
engulfing of solid particles by cells
active, feeding form
cyst means
dormant, survival form
move by flagella (long whip-like structures for motility), called the flagellates
flagellate protozoa
T.brucei gambiense; infection in blood and lymph; vector: tsetse fly (pathogen in saliva)
African trypanosomiasis
T.cruzi, infection in blood and lymph; vector: Triatoma spp. (kissing bugs) (pathogen in feces)
American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)
pathogen in heart muscle (amastigote form: no flagella)
Chagas disease
trophozoite on left; cyst on right, most common intestinal protozoan in U.S; up to 2.5 million cases per year; low infectious dosage; high risk: children in day care, backpackers, travelers; diarrhea flatulence, weight loss, cramping, fatigue
Giardia spp. -G.lamblia -G. intestinalis,et.
intestinal infection
many parts of the world, human and animal reservoir, sandfly vector, cutaneous or visceral (systemic) (Kala Azar), Leishmaniasis
Lishmania donovoni
move by cilia (short, hair-like projections for motility)
move by cilia, only one pathogen, balatidiasis= intestinal infection; only pathogenic ciliate
Balantidium coli
common freeliving ciliate
intracellular parasites with complex life cycles; most stages are nonmotile
parasites grow in our red blood cells
vectors: anopheles spp. mosquitos
Plasmodium vivax=malaria
toxoplasmosis= systemic infection; inhalation of dust from cat feces or eating undercooked meat, greatest importance during pregnancy- may cause fetal defects or death
Toxoplama gondii
live in cells lining intestine, diarrhea (10-14 days, cholera like), human and animal reservoirs (releases oocysts in the feces), fecal contamination of water system, chlorine resistant, even filtration sometimes fails, many outbreaks in U.S., severe in HIV-Infected people (>50% mortality)
Cryptosporidium parvum & other spp.
eucaryotic, no cell walls, heterotrophic nutrition, specialized tissues
Kingdom Animalia
flatworms, trematoda =flukes -leaf-shaped -parasitic -complex life cycles with several larval forms: larva = an immature form of an animal intermediate host: where the larva lives definitive host: where the adult worm lives
an immature form of an animal; does not look like the adult
where the larva lives
intermediate host
where the adult worm lives
definite host
having both ovaries and testes
blood flukes, male and female;portal of entry:skin,source of infection: larvae from fresh water snails; disease is not contracted in U.S.A. (we don't have host snail here). but more than 400,000 immigrants to this country have it; lives primarily in the pelvic veins
Schistosoma haematobium
having both ovaries and testes (being both sexes at the same time)
have 2 host: intermediate host: infected by ingesting tapeworm eggs; contains larval cyst in skeletal muscle and other organs such as brain (infection is called cysticercosis; definite host: infected by ingesting larval cyst; adult tapeworm grows in intestine
roundworms; plain, unsegmented worms ranging from microscopic up to about 12 in.
Aschelmenthes or Nematoda
the largest roundworms: up to 12 inches ascariasis= intestinal infection
Ascaris spp.
larval cysts in skeletal muscle
trichinosis; infection by ingesting larval cysts in undercooked pork or bear meat
Trichinella spiralis
worms in lymph vessel
filariasis, microfilaria larva transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes, grow to adults 2-3 inches long, block flow of lymph, if untreated, after years of infestation, leads to elephantasis(swelling due to accumulation of fluid in tissues)
Wuchereria bancrofti
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