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Neolithic Civilization
Catal Huyuk
Neolithic Village in southern turkey, 9000 BCE, one of largest villages uncovered in fertile crescent
Sumer
In mesopotamia, 5000 BCE, first to practice year round agriculture, invented writing for accounting
Mesopotamia
Land between to rivers tigris and euphrates, included civilizations like the sumer
Fertile Crescent
stretches from mediterranean sea to persian gulf, included mesopotamia, watered by tigris and euphrates rivers
Hammurabi
firts king of babylonian empire, 1795-1750 BCE, most famous for code of hammurabi which was one of the first set of codes in history
Ziggurat
Monuments made my sumerian,assyrian,babylonian etc as monuments to religions, were pyramidal structures with flat tops
Cuneiform
One of earliest forms of written expression, emerged in sumer in 30th century BC, pictographs written on clay tablets
Rosetta Stone
stone made in 196 bc, helped us decipher heiroglyphics used by ancient egyptians, 3 translations on it 2 egyptian one greek
The Nile
River seperating upper and lower egypt, flooded annually important because provided sustenance since people could harvest crops around it and it attracted animals which were hunted for food
Pharoah
Religious and political leader of a unified ancient egypt, prevalent during old kingdom when pharoah was supreme
Imhotep
27th century bc, served as polymath under djoser, considered to be first engineer architect and physician in history known by name, one of few mortals to be depicted as part of a pharoahs statue
Pyramids of Giza
2590 BCE, cluster of pyramids ranging in size along with the sphinx, built by laborers who didnt want to pay taxes
Hatshepsut
fifth pharoah of eighteenth dynasty of ancient egypt, regarded most successful pharoah's, 1479-1458 BC, ruled during new kingdom
Osiris
egyptian god of the afterlife, people believed souls who lived according to ma'at were joined with osiris in afterlife, believed he granted life
Ma'at
way of life, represented god created world to honor it you lived by it, a partially codified set of laws, sometimes personified as goddess
Minoan
1900-1500 BCE, bronze age civilizaton, trade, agriculture, painting, influenced mycenenas
Mycenean
1600-1200 BCE, Influenced by minoans, warrior aristocracy, trade, gods like zeus, in crete, culture became dominant at minoan sites
Assyrians
In mesopotamia centered on upper tigris river, capital was assur, 1362-605 BCE, used bronze weapons, terror & brutality, massive relocations
Zoroastrianism
One universal god ahura mazda, good vs. evil, individual choice, 5th century BC, religion of persians, religion had western ideology
Ahura Mazda
Universal god under zoroastrianism, persian god
Yahweh
vocalization of the tetragrammaton of hebrews
The Hebrews
mesopotamian roots, early culture didnt believe in gods after Exodus, Monotheism 10 commandments,
Homer
Greek poet, wrote illiad and oddysey, heroic ideal, epic stories
Hoplite
citizen soldiers of ancient greek-states, fought in phalanx formation, most famous were spartans
Polis
a city state, central point of assembly, agora, community of citizens with rights & responsibilities, during archaic age 800-500 BCE
Athens
Monarchy overthrown by aristocrats 700 BCE, became leading city in 5th century BC, achievements layed foundation for western civilization
Sparta
city-state in ancient greece, expanded into messenia, 2 kings, military society, hoplite warriors trained from birth to fear nothing
Helot
State slaves in sparta, provided all the labor, were humiliated on a constant basis, during crypteia they could be killed without punishment
Solon
Reformer, 594 BCE, Wanted to cancel all debts, assembly of free citizens, athenian, laid foundations for athenian democracy
Pericles
495-429 BC, statesman orator and general of athens in its golden age, promoted arts and literature, the chief reason that athens is educational and arts capital of ancient greek world. strictly followed athenian democracy
Persian Wars
499-449 BC, between greek city states and persian empire, not all city states fought some were neutral and some allied with persia, first time greek city-states put aside differences to form an alliance against persians
Peloponnesian War
431-404 BC, athens and its empire against peloponnesian league headed by sparta, athens lost, sparta was now leading power of greece
Delian League
478 BC, association of about 150 city-states under leadership of athens, name came from where they met which was delos, purpose was to continue fighting persian empire
Classical Age Greece
500-338 BCE, Persian wars, Athens dominant,
Thucydides
460-395 BCE, greek historian and author of the history of the peloponnesian war, father of scientific history, father of the school of realism
Parthenon
Temple of greek goddess Athena, built in 5th Century BC on the athenian acropolis, most important surviving building of classical greece, used as a treasury
Aeschylus
525-456 BCE, ancient greek playwright, most famous play was orestia, father of tragedy
Eurpides
485-406 BCE, last of 3 great tragedians of greece, most famous work bacchae a satirical play, satirized many heroes of greek mythology
Sophocles
496-406 BCE, one of great tragedians, most famous play oedipus (kid marries mom kills dad), used drama
Aristophanes
448-382 BCE, Comic playwright, ushered comedy into a new age, most famous play lysistrata
Sophists
'wise' or 'wisdom' anyone with expertise in craft or domain, taught skills for a price, challenged continuity
Socrates
469-399 ,classical greek philosopher, 'unexamined life not worth living', think for ourselves ideal, examine our beliefs, first to do this, ethics, not much known since no writings found
Plato
429-347 BCE, greek philosopher, socrates mentee, founder of academy in athens, appearance vs reality, reason vs sense, influenced by socrates death
Aristotle
384-322 BCE, Plato's student and teacher of alexander the great, denied plato's theories of form, observation and investigation, founder of formal logic
Stoicism
3rd century BC, conflict between wishes and reality, founded by Zeno, passionate emotions results of errors in judgement and that a sage would not have such emotions
Epicureanism
philosophy based upon teachings of epicurus, founded 307 BCE, greatest good was to seek modest pleasure in order to attain state of tranquility and freedom from fear, happiness in its highest form
Alexander the Great
356-323 BCE, inspired by achilles, wants to be hero worthy of worship, establish colonies of greeks/macedoinans, absorbs local cultures and customs, fuse cultures, one of most successful military commanders of all time
Library of Alexandria
Once largest library in ancient world, conceived and opened during reign of Ptomely Soter or his son, first known library to gather serious collection of books from beyond its countries borders, charged with collecting all the worlds knowledge
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