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how does the strep. pneumoniae vaccine work?
make Ab to hemagglutinin. This prevents bacterial entry into cells.
Cytochrome C
mitochondrial enzyme that activates capases leading to apoptosis in the INTRINSIC pathway
Prevent HIV entry into cells?
CCR5 mutation
defective isotype switching get over expression of?
IgM
immune response to candida infection
T cells- local infection. HIV get thrush
Neutrophils- hematogenous spread, systemic infection.
Isotype switching local?

stimulation?
germinal center

T cell cytokines
Anaphylaxis to blood transfusion and recurrent URI
IgA def. get IgG Ab to IgA
immunity to influenza A?
Ab to hemagglutin- IgA and IgG
vaccinated with live polio vs killed difference in Ab formation
live- get duodenal IgA formation. mucus membrane must be exposed.
Recurrent Giardia infection
IgA def- can be agammaglobulinemia, SCID, or IgA def.
Treat IL 12 def
IFN gamma
get severe TB- no Th1 to activate Macros.  Give IFN to activate macros
anti inflammatory cytokines
IL 10, TNF B
Polysaccharide + diphtheria toxic is a vaccine against?
H flu.  combine to get a memory response. can do with any encapsulated bacteria.  Tetanus and n. mem outer protein also work instead of diphtheria
which cells cant use ketones for energy? there are two
why?
RBC- no mito
liver- no succinyk CoA acetoacetate CoA transferase
pancytopenia + no splenomegaly
aplastic anemia
TB drug that works best at low ph to kill intracellular organisms.
pyrazinamide
kills TB in macrophages
enzyme that adds Uracil to DNA in bacteria
primase. makes the RNA primer for DNA poly
lung cancer where surgery is never indicated
Small cell lung cancer
name of two stress (trauma, burn) induced ulcers
Curling- duodenal ulcer
cushing- assoicated with increased ICP found in stomach, esoph, duo.
birth defects seen in DM babies
3 main things:
1. transposition of the great vessels
2. Hypoglycemia
3. large babies- erbs palsy, clavical fracture, shoulder problems, failure to progress- in labor.
Spread of N. menn- to cause meningitis?
Pharynx- blood- choroid plexus- meninges
spread of H. flu to cause meningitis
pharynx- lymphatics- menings
most common location for colon cancer?
symptoms?
second most common location?
symptoms?
rectosigmoid- obstruction symptoms
ascending - bleeding- FOBT, Fe def anemia.
Globus hystericus
the sensation of a "lump in the throat with no physical, endoscopic, or radiographic findings of esophageal obstruction.
45% of the population experiences
fragile mucosal fold that cause soild food dysphagia
esophageal webs
dysarthria, dysphagia, dysphonia with MS
Pseudobulbar paresis
why can't RBC synth heme even though they have the enzymes?
No mitochondria
how do you prevent hemm. cystitis cause by chemo- specifically nitrosoureas
Mesna
how do you stop extravasation (loss of pallor and induration) in tissues being infused with NE?
Phetitolamine (alpha blocker)
where is elastase found?
aveolar macros and PMNS
tumor of outer layer of adrenal cortex causing paresthesia dn muscle weakness?
no Aldo- conn syndrom

if you had excess hair? inner cortex- sex hormones

if you have weight gain? mid cortex- cortisol
why do you only get a small increase in MAP with running? what decreases to allow this?
SVR do to local mediators- local vasodilation to increase BF to muscles
what does grapefruit juice inhibit?
CYP3A3 and CYP3A4 in the intestine. they are isoenzymes of the P-450 system
side effects of benzos often seen in the elderly?
confusion, anterograde amnesia, psychomotor retardation
confusion, vision problems, exterme thirst?
what drug overdose is responsible?
atropine- antichol

hot as a hare
dry as bone
red as a beet
blind as a bat
mad as a hatter
what should a person with DM do?
check their feet everyday

even if the other answer is eat less carbs
AML chromosomal abnormality
15:17- APL
ALL chromosomal abn
8:14
12:21
follicular lymphoma chromosmal abn
14:18
desmocollins, desmogleins are all examples of?

what do they do?
Cadherins

Ca+ dependent- help muscle and epi cells bind to eachother in desmosomes
what to integrins do?
in hemidesmosomes- mediated cell binding to the BM
what stimulates bicarbonate-rich fluid accumulation in the duodenum?
low PH of duodenal context- stimulates bile release, secretin release from SI- which stimulate bicarb release from pancreas
what vessel or nerve is most at risk with a ACL or PCL tear?
popliteal artery- do to its deep, fixed location.

more so than the tibal and common peroneal nerve
what defect in what causes the deep inquinal ring?

the superficial inquinal ring?
transversalis fascia


external abdominal oblique aponeurosis
what organism is commonly isolated in endometritis?
Bacterodies-
often a mixed aerobic anaerobic infection. 

often occurs after giving birth - fever, high WBC, uterine tenderness, foul smelling discharge
ligand binding to a tyrosine kinase receptor results in?
formation of receptor dimers and a conformational change that exposes TK active sites
headaches, chronic nasal discharge, atrophic nasal mucosa, and thinning of the nasal septum?
long term coccaine use

can lead to -->

nasal septum perforation, oropharyngeal ulcers, and osteolytic sinusitis
what is vasomotor rhinitis?
chronic nasal congestion that worsens with abrupt changes in temperature or humidity or exposure to odors or EtOH. also have headaches, anosmia, sinusitis
what happens to GFR when you remove one kidney- right after?
6wks after?
50%

and 80%
where in the penis do phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors work?
sildenafil-

corpora cavernosa
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