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Effector
Organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings.
Organism
The living animal (or plant), which represents the sum total of all its organ systems working together to maintain life.
Gland
Organ specialized to secrete or excrete substances for further use in the body or for elimination.
Medial
Toward the midline of the body
Atom
The smallest part of an element; indivisible by ordinary chemical means.
Brachial
Pertaining to the arm.
Tissue
A group of similar cells (and their intercellular substance) specialized to perform a specific function; primary tissue types of the body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue.
Axilla
armpit
Inferior (caudal)
Pertaining to a position near the tail end of the long axis of the body.
Organ
A part of the body formed of two or more tissues and adapted to carry out a specific function; e.g., the stomach.
Anterior
The front of an organism, organ, or part; the ventral surface.
Hypothalamus
Region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the third ventricle of the brain.
Sagittal section
A longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions.
Cervical
Refers to the neck or the necklike portion of an organ or structure.
Lymphatic system
System consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs and tissues; drains excess tissue fluid from the extracellular space and provides a site for immune surveillance.
Excretion
Elimination of waste products from the body.
Proximal
Toward the attached end of a limb or the origin of a structure.
Midsagittal (median) section
Specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline.
cell
The structural and functional unit of living organisms; contains a nucleus and a variety of organelles enclosed by a limiting membrane.
Endocrine system
Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones.
Receptor
(1) A cell or nerve ending of a sensory neuron specialized to respond to particular types of stimuli. (2) Molecule that binds specifically with other molecules e.g., neurotransmitters, hormones, antigens.
Positive feedback mechanisms
Feedback that tends to cause the level of a variable to change in the same direction as an initial change.
Negative feedback mechanisms
The most common of homeostatic control mechanisms. The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
Skeletal system
System of protection and support composed primarily of bone and cartilage.
Ventral
Pertaining to the front; anterior.
Urinary system
System primarily responsible for water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and removal of nitrogenous wastes.
Buccal
pertaining to the cheek.
Tarsal
One of the seven bones that form the ankle and heel.
Irritability
Irritability
Distal
Away from the attached end of a limb or the origin of a structure.
Anatomy
Study of the structure of living organisms.
Physiology
Study of the function of living organisms.
levels of structural organization that make up the human body
Atoms
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ system
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