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In a more scientific sense, to say that you have a "theory" about something, implies...
-That you have considerable evidence to support a principle or principles that can explain the operation of a certain phenomenon
How did Chinn and Jacobs define theory?
-A set of concepts, definitions, interrelationships among concepts for purposes of describing, explaining, and predicting
How did Riehl and Roy define theory?
-Scientifically accepotable general principle which governs practice or is proposed to explain observed facts
How did Barnum define theory?
-A construct that accounts for or organizes some phenomenon
-Notes that a "nursing theory", then, describes or explains nursing"
How do LoBiondo-Wood and Haber define nursing?
-A set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena for the purpose of explaining and making predictions about those phenomena
What are "borrowed theories"?
-Theories from other disciplines like physiology and psychology
Give examples of borrowed theories
-Hans Selye's Stress theory from physiology
-Erik Erikson's developmental theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs from psychology
How is theory related to nursing research, practice, and education?
-Theory provides the framework for all three aspects of nursing
Nursing interventions often rely on.....and why?
-Often rely on research to devise various treatments or ways of relating to patients and their families in order to give better care
How do theories help researchers?
-Theories enable researchers to develop hypotheses or statements of prediction about the relationship between variables; these hypotheses can then be tested with the appropriate research design
Nursing theory can also...?
-Guide and direct nursing practice
How does nursing theory guide and direct nursing practice?
-Nurses in practice settings are continually testing theories
-Whenever nurses are engaged in any nursing activity, they are generally operating pn the basis of a theory that what they are doing actually works
-Someone developed that particualr treatment or technique based on a theory that it would be effectual
Much of what has been done in nursing has been based on..?
-Tradition (past experience)
-Trial and error
Current research can do what to nursing theories?
-Can either validate that what is being done is the best known practice or uncover new and improved ways of doing things
-New theories might be generated from current research
Nursing education programs are generally required to do what?
-Base their plan of study on a strong theoretical foundation
Most comprehensive nursing theories include a set of.....about the nature of four foundational concepts
Lis the four foundational concepts
-The human being
-The environment
-Health and illness (Health-illness continuum)
Define "worldview"
-A set of presuppositions or assumptions about the basic makeup of the world
How do nursing theorists and the four foundational concepts interact with each other?
-Based on their worldviews, nursing theorists assume certain things about the nature of people, the environment that people live in, health and illness, and the nature of nursing, nursing actions, and nurse-patient interactions
Nursing interventions related to nursing theory are also based on?
How can an understanding of the environment affect patients and nursing?
-An understanding of the environment as something that can have both positive and negative effects on a patient's mood or pain level might prompt nursing interventions that involve manipulating environmental factors to create more pleasant, restful, and quiet environments
Who was considered the first nursing theorists?
-Florence Nightingale
Why is Florence Nightingale considered the first nursing theorist?
-She carefully and systematically gathered statistics and presented the facts gleaned from her research in various reports and books after the Crimean War
-Her theories are considered to be humanistic and environmental; focused on the individual patient but also paid a great deal of attention to environmental influences (cleanliness, good nutrition, fresh air)
-Her nurses also wrote letters home for soldiers, which is an example of improving the social environment as a means of achieving better health
Beginning in the 1950's, nurses borrowed heavily from what other disciplines?
-Social sciences of psychology, sociology, and anthropology to construct various nursing thoeries
In the 1950s there was an increased emphasis on the growth of nursing research. What was the result of the increased emphasis?
-The first journal to promote research, The Journal of Nursing Research, was published in 1952
-The American Nurses Association and the American Nurses Foundation began to fund research, and in 1957, the first nursing research unit was developed at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Reasearch
List the nursing theorists from the 1950s
-Virginia Henderson
-Hildegard Paplau
-Myra E. Levine
Who was Virginia Henderson?
-An early nurse researcher and nurse educator who is best known for her coauthored textbook of the principles and practice of nursing
-Focused her attention on physiological balance
-Her theory is similar to Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's stages of growth and development
-Can be though of as a developmental needs theory
Henderson and who else focused on the person as a .....
-Faye Abdellah and Dorothea Orem
-Focused on the prerson as a developmental being with needs that could be met by health care professionals, including nurses and physicians
Describe Hendersons hierarchy
-Has fourteen human needs similar to Maslow's hierarchy of needs in that the basic foundational needs are physical and the higher-level needs are psychosocial and spiritual
-Viewed the nurse as practicing autonomously (independently) to meet the needs of teh nierarchy and other needs
List some foundational physiological and spiritual and psychosocial needs in Henderson's theory
-Physiological needs (breathe, eat, drink adequately; to eliminate wastes; and to rest)
-Psychosocial and spiritual needs (the need to communicate with others, to engage in meaningful work, and to worship according to one's faith)
What is Henderson's definition of the role of the nurse?
-"The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge, and to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible"
How has Henderson's definition of the role of the nurse influenced the practice of nursing?
-Has provided a framework for nursing education in many programs
-Often quoted today as one of the most comprehensive and valid
Who was Hildegard Paplau?
-Wrote Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing
-Her theory focuses on developmental needs of patients but even more on interpersonal relationships by using a psychological model
Describe Hildegard Paplau's theory
-Generally categorized as an interpersonal theory, an interaction theory, or a theory of interpersonal relationships, which was a common model of verba interaction in psychology and psychiatry during the 1950s and 60s
Paplaus nurse-patient relationship is based on?
-The ability of the nurse to use his or her senses to interpret data
What are the four phases of Paplau's model of psychodynamic nursing?
List the different nursing roles that emerge in Paplau's four phases of psychodynamic nursing
-The nurse as a stranger
-The nurse as resource person
-The nurse as teacher
-The nurse as leader
-The nurse as surrogate
-The nurse as counselor
Based on Paplau's model of psychodynamic nursing, patients are helped to.....?
-Recognize and change patterns that obstruct goal achievement
Who is Myra E. Levine?
-Best known for her development of four conservative principles; these include the conservation of energy and the conservation on structural, personal, and social integrity
Describe Myra E. Levine's theory
-Based on theories from psychology, sociaology, and pathophysiology, such as Hans Selye's theory of stress
-The concept of energy is an essential component of Levine's models
What is the focus of Myra E. Levine's writing?
-It is not on energy balance and imbalance (as is more common in current nursing theories) but on the conservation of physical energy and on energy renewal
-She based ehr understanding on the second law of thermodynamics
What is thermodynamics?
-The branch of physics that is concerned with laws governing heat production, changes, and conversion into other types of energy
What did Levine's theory emphasize?
-Emphasized the ill person predominantly as a patient in the hospital rather than as a client in the community, which is a more common model for current nursing theory
What did Shelly and Miller note about nursing as it moved from three-year diploma programs into the universities?
-As they progressed from the diploma to the universities, they did so through the doors of natural science, and many nursing theories "took on the characteristics of naturalism"
-These theories were couched "in cause-and-effect language, often with elaborate diagrams showing complex relationships between concepts"
What did Shelly and Miller believe about the process of theory development and theory testing?
-The true nature of reality could be discovered and a body of knowledge in nursing could be progressively built, which appeared to be necessary for both providing patient care and attaining credibility as a profession
What was one result of the Lysaught report?
-Laid the groundwork for a greater emphasis on clinically oriented research with a strong theory base
How did nursing change during the 1960s?
-During this time period, nursing as a profession was becoming more community conscious, community based, and community oriented, and the focus of medicine and nursing was shifting from acute care in a hospital setting to prevetive care at home
-Cost containment was a majoy factor in this shift
-Community health nursing in the home afforded many more oppertunities for nurses to become aware of transcultural differences that could subsequently be helpful in other caregiving settings, including hospitals and nursing homes
-The need for culturally sensitive care became more apparent to nurse educators, researchers, and theorists
Who is Madeline Leininger?
-Developed culture care
-Was the first professional nurse to have a Ph.D. in cultural and social anthropology
-Developed a model of transcultural nursing, or nursing that takes into consideration cultural variation among patients and families
-The first nurse theorist to systematically focus on and define the concept of ccaring as both the basis for nursing practice and the essence of nursing
Describe Dorothea Orem theory of nursing
-Primarily focused on self-care
-Believed that life, health, and well-being are maintained by activities that people initiate on their own, such as breathing and eating
-When ill, the ability to initiate self-care activities can be compromised, leading to a self-care deficit
-It is the nurses role to help eliminate the deficit through direct care and also through education
-Reflected the emphasis on self-help in society as a whole during the 1970s
List Orems three primary types of nursing systems
-Performing self-care activities for people (wholly compensatory care)
-Assisting people with self-care (partially compensatory care)
-Educating and supporting people to help them perform self-care
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