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our awareness of ourselves and our environments
Biological Rhythms
periodic physiological fluctuations
Circadian Rhythm
(the biological clock) regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle, such as of wakefulness and body temperature
REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
-recurring sleep stage -vivid dreams -“paradoxical sleep” -muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
Alpha Waves
slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
Delta Waves
large, slow waves of deep sleep
false sensory experiences
Effects of Sleep Loss
-fatigue -impaired concentration -depressed immune system -greater vulnerability to accidents
persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
uncontrollable sleep attacks
Sleep Apnea
-temporary cessation of breathing -momentary reawakenings
Night Terrors
-occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4 -high arousal-- appearance of being terrified
sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind
Sigmund Freud-- The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
wish fulfillment -discharge otherwise -unacceptable feelings
Manifest Content
remembered story line
Latent Content
underlying meaning
REM Rebound
REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
Posthypnotic Amnesia
supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis
Orne & Evans (1965)
-control group instructed to “pretend” -unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones
Posthypnotic Suggestion
suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
a split in consciousness
Hidden Observer
Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
Psychoactive Drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Physical Dependence
physiological need for a drug (withdrawal symptoms)
Psychological Dependence
a psychological need to use a drug
diminishing effect with regular use
discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
-drugs that reduce neural activity -slow body functions (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates)
-drugs that excite neural activity -speed up body functions (caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine)
psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
Ecstasy (MDMA)
-synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen -both short-term and long-term health risks
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
a powerful hallucinogenic drug (acid)
-the major active ingredient in marijuana -triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
Near-Death Experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death
the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
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