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The mouth can be generally divided into two parts, they are
The vesibulum oris and hte Cavum Oris Proper
The boundries of the proper oral cavity are
Dorsally, the hard palate, Laterally the Dental arches, Ventrally the tongue
Three types of upper lip patterns can be seen, what are they and in which animals
  • Nasolabial Plate (Bo)
  • Rostral Disc (Su)
  • Philtrum (Ca and Small Ru)
The caudal edge of the hard palate is called
The intrapharyngeal opening
The tree muscles of the soft palate are:
  • The Tensor Veli Palatinum,
  •  the Levator Veli Palatinum
  • and the M. palatinum
The three main parts of the tongue are the: The muscosal fold found under the tongue is called the:
  • Root, Body, Apex
  • Frenulum lingua
Two features of the tongue found only in carnivores are
Sulcus mediana (dorsally) and the lyssa (ventrally)
What are the types of mechanical papillae
  • Filiform,
  •  Conical
  • Marginal (only found in newborn suckling Ca and Sus)
What are the three types of gustatory papillae
  • Fungiform,
  • Vallate
  • and Foliate
The Three extrinisic muscles of the tongue are
  • M styloglossus,
  •  hyoglossus
  • and the genioglossus
Describe the blood supply of the tongue
Lingual Artery and the Sublingual artery, which arise from the external carotid. The tongue is drained by the v lingualis and the v. linguofacialis which drain into the arcus hyoideus
What are the three major Salivary Glands and what type of saliva do they produce?
  • Parotid Gland -serous, lobulated, supplied and drained by branches of the maxillary artery and vein
  • Mandibular Gland - mixed secretions, supplied and drained by linguofacial arteries and veins
  •  Sublingual Glands - containing both polystomatic and monostomatic parts, producing mixed secrtions. The monostomatic part is found near the Mandibulary Gland and the Polystomatic part is found near the tongue.
Name interspecies differences regarding the Sublingual Salivary Duct
  • The Eq the monostomatic part is absent
  • The Ru has both ducts but their locations are reversed  
  • In carnivores the sublingual duct shares a common capsule with the mandibulary duct
The sublingual and mandibulary duct open on what strucutre?
Sublingual caruncles
What are the minor Salivary Glands? What are the interspecial differences?
The buccal glands. In Carnivores they become the Zygomatic Ducts
What are the three parts of the the tooth?
  • Crown
  •  Neck
  •  and Root
What are the three mineralized substances of the tooth?
  • Enamel,
  • Dentine
  •  Cement
The blood vessels are able to enter the root of the tooth via
The Apical Foramen
What are the three parts of the pharynx
Nasopharynx, Oropharynx and the Laryngopharanx
What are the openings of the Pharyngeal Cavity
  • Paired Chonae
  • Isthmus Faucium
  • Paried Entracnes to the Auditory (Eustachian) tubes
  • Aditus laryngis
  • Aditus oesophagus
What is the name of the space shared by the Nasopharynx and the Oroopharynx?
What are the the constictor muscles of the pharynx
  • Rostrally : Mm pterygopharyngei, Mm palatopharyngyei
  • Middle: M hyopharyngeus (Keratopharyngeus and chondropharyngeus)
  • Caudal: M thyropharyngeus and the M cricopharyngeus
What are the dilator muscles of the pharynx
M stylopharyngeus caudalis
What are the five pairs of lymph nodes in the Tonsillary Ring of Woldeyer
  • Palatine (abs in su)
  • Pharyngeal
  •  Lingual
  • Choanal
  •  Tubal
What are the upper muslces of the hyoid apparatus
Upper: M mylohyoideus, geniohyoidieus, stylo, occipito, cerato, hyoidus transversus Lower: my sternohyoideus, sternothroideus, omohyoideus
The layers of the oesphogus are
  • Tunica Mucosa,
  • Tela Submucousa,
  • Tunica Muscularis
  • and the Tunica Adventitia
Describe the passage of the Oesophagus relative to other structures
  • Begins dorsal to the cricoid cart of larynx Passes left of the trachea
  • Runs dorsal to trachea in the mediastinum
  • Continues past the tracheal bifurcatoin and over the base of the heart
  • Continues ventral to the ascending aorta, but wiht a dorsal inclination
  • Enters the abd cavity v
  • ia the oesophageal hiatus of the diaphram
  • Passes over the dorsal border of the liver
  • Joins stomach at cardia
What is the name of the bumps found on the hard palate?
What interspecies differences can we find the the tongue of the ox
The Raises Torus linguae, preceeded by the fossa Linguae
What are the borders of the Oropharnx?
From the oral cavity to the epiglottis. The Arcus Palatoglossus demarcates the oral cavity from the oropharynx
What are the borders of the Nasopharynx?
From the caudal nares to the laryngeopharynx. The Acrcus Pharyngeus demarcates the nasopharynx from the laryngopharynx and extends from the soft palate to the larynx
What is the Piriform Recess?
A continuation of the floor of the oropharynx, recesses are either side of the larynx, part of the laryngopharynx. Liquid may get trapped here
What is special about the Valecula Epiglotto?
- it is inaccessible to the regulatory cough reflex
What reflex is triggered when something touches the pharynx?
Deglutination Reflex
Species Differences in the Soft Palate
The horse has a very long soft palate that comes into contact with the epiglottis
What is the pharyngeal diverticulum
A blind pouch in teh nasopharynx of the Su
Bones making up the oral cavity
incisive bone, palatine and alveolar process of the maxilla, horizontal lamina of palatine bone and madibula
Definition of isthmus facium
formed by root of tongue and soft palate, usually closed
Describe the blood supply of the hard and soft palate
The major and minor palatine arteries, branches coming off the Maxillary Artery
Describe the blood supply of the lips
A libialis inferior et superior, branches of the external carotid, normally the first branch given after the artery emerges onto the face. In su, the inferior is a branch of the buccal artery
What is the name of the common duct for the mandibular and sublingual glands of the carnivore? And where does it open?
Major Sublingual Duct, under the tongue onto the sublingual caruncles
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